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Gene Review

VTG2  -  vitellogenin 2

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of LOC424533


High impact information on LOC424533

  • Whereas none of these nuclease-hypersensitive sites is observed in erythrocytes, brain, or fibroblasts, a subset is present in differentiated oviduct cells that have estrogen receptors, but do not express VTG II [6].
  • It has a high affinity for estradiol (Kd = 0.5 x 10(-9) M), and the affinities of various steroids for the receptor correlate well with their ability to induce vitellogenin synthesis [7].
  • This paper describes an estrogen receptor which is found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells from male Xenopus laevis, and which seems to be involved in the induction of vitellogenin synthesis [7].
  • Here we define a palindromic sequence of 15 base pairs, modelled after a sequence element shared by the vitellogenin genes of frog and chicken, which confers oestrogen inducibility on a heterologous promoter and can be converted into a glucocorticoid-responsive element by substitution of one or two bases at homologous positions in the palindrome [8].
  • Measurement of hepatic apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin II messenger RNA during chicken embryogenesis showed that these genes acquire estrogen responsiveness at different stages of development [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of LOC424533


Biological context of LOC424533


Anatomical context of LOC424533

  • These results suggest that after incorporation from serum via a specific receptor vitellogenin II is cleaved in the oocyte into four fragments, heavy and light chain lipovitellins, phosvitin and YGP40, and that YGP40 is released into the yolk plasma before or during compartmentation of lipovitellin-phosvitin complex into the yolk granule [13].
  • The amino acid sequence of the egg yolk storage protein phosvitin has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of part of the chicken vitellogenin gene [14].
  • Using this technique we show that vitellogenin II gene sequences are selectively associated with the nuclear matrix of liver but not with oviduct of laying hens [15].
  • Association of transcriptionally active vitellogenin II gene with the nuclear matrix of chicken liver [15].
  • We also demonstrate that the size and number of polysomes increase and decrease in a coordinated fashion with the rate of vitellogenin synthesis [16].

Associations of LOC424533 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of LOC424533


Co-localisations of LOC424533


Regulatory relationships of LOC424533

  • Although most of these mutations compromised VTGII promoter function, one dramatically increased expression in LMH cells and also rendered the VTGII promoter capable of being activated by cis-linked EREs in fibroblasts cotransfected with an estrogen receptor expression vector [23].
  • Strikingly, the constitutive HS site located 5.5 kb upstream of the VTGIII gene and a previously identified HS site located within the coordinately regulated VTGII gene mapped to nearly identical copies of a 72 bp sequence [24].
  • Does vitellogenin inhibit lipoprotein lipase in the laying hen [25]?

Other interactions of LOC424533

  • Chicken vitellogenin, a serum lipoprotein specific for laying hens, has been thought to be proteolytically cleaved into the heavy and light chain lipovitellins and phosvitin, the major yolk granule proteins, during or after transportation into oocyte [13].
  • Precursor-product relationship between chicken vitellogenin and the yolk proteins: the 40 kDa yolk plasma glycoprotein is derived from the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of vitellogenin II [13].
  • Third, as has been described previously for the VTGII and apoVLDLII genes, we demonstrate that a single injection of estradiol effects a long-term reprogramming event (hepatic memory) that allows a faster onset of the rapid accumulation of both VTGI and VTGIII RNAs following a subsequent rechallenge by estradiol [17].
  • We have used the newly isolated clones, as well as the yolk protein cDNAs previously available [VTGII, apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII), and apolipoprotein B], as probes to examine several aspects of the regulation of these genes by estradiol [17].
  • We have precisely determined the positions of the first three exons for the major chicken vitellogenin gene (VTG II) by a combination of S1 nuclease protection, primer extension and DNA sequencing experiments [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC424533

  • Gel filtration analysis of vitellogenin II digested with cathepsin D showed that YGP40 dissociated from lipovitellin-phosvitin complex after the proteolytic cleavage [13].
  • Identification and sequence analysis of the 5' end of the major chicken vitellogenin gene [26].
  • However, when serum was obtained from cockerels injected with estradiol 4 days before blood collection and included in the culture medium, the cultures secreted a protein identified immunologically as vitellogenin by affinity chromatography [22].
  • The messenger RNA that specifies vitellogenin has been purified more than 800-fold from rooster liver polysomal RNA by a combination of methods, including immunoprecipitation of polysomes and chromatography of RNA on poly(U)-Sepharose [27].
  • Here we have applied ligand and immunoblotting to visualize the Xenopus laevis oocyte receptor for vitellogenin as a protein with an apparent Mr of 115,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels under nonreducing conditions [28].


  1. A single chicken oocyte plasma membrane protein mediates uptake of very low density lipoprotein and vitellogenin. Stifani, S., Barber, D.L., Nimpf, J., Schneider, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action. Cato, A.C., Heitlinger, E., Ponta, H., Klein-Hitpass, L., Ryffel, G.U., Bailly, A., Rauch, C., Milgrom, E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation and characterization of genomic clones covering the chicken vitellogenin gene. Arnberg, A.C., Meijlink, F.C., Mulder, J., van Bruggen, E.F., Gruber, M., Geert, A.B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Organization, sequence and nuclease hypersensitivity of repetitive elements flanking the chicken apoVLDLII gene: extended sequence similarity to elements flanking the chicken vitellogenin gene. Haché, R.J., Deeley, R.G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Isolation and fine structure organisation of an avian vitellogenin gene coding for the major estrogen-inducible mRNA. Wilks, A., Cato, A.C., Cozens, P.J., Mattaj, I.W., Jost, J.P. Gene (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Temporal order of chromatin structural changes associated with activation of the major chicken vitellogenin gene. Burch, J.B., Weintraub, H. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. An estrogen receptor from Xenopus laevis liver possibly connected with vitellogenin synthesis. Westley, B., Knowland, J. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Oestrogen and glucocorticoid responsive elements are closely related but distinct. Klock, G., Strähle, U., Schütz, G. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Independent developmental programs for two estrogen-regulated genes. Elbrecht, A., Lazier, C.B., Protter, A.A., Williams, D.L. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Plasma zinc as an index of vitellogenin production and reproductive status in the domestic fowl. Mitchell, M.A., Carlisle, A.J. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Sequence homologies within the 5' end region of the estrogen-controlled vitellogenin gene in Xenopus and chicken. Walker, P., Brown-Luedi, M., Germond, J.E., Wahli, W., Meijlink, F.C., van het Schip, A.D., Roelink, H., Gruber, M., Ab, G. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of the organization and fine structure of a chicken and a Xenopus laevis vitellogenin gene. Nardelli, D., van het Schip, F.D., Gerber-Huber, S., Haefliger, J.A., Gruber, M., Ab, G., Wahli, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Precursor-product relationship between chicken vitellogenin and the yolk proteins: the 40 kDa yolk plasma glycoprotein is derived from the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of vitellogenin II. Yamamura, J., Adachi, T., Aoki, N., Nakajima, H., Nakamura, R., Matsuda, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Amino acid sequence of phosvitin derived from the nucleotide sequence of part of the chicken vitellogenin gene. Byrne, B.M., van het Schip, A.D., van de Klundert, J.A., Arnberg, A.C., Gruber, M., Ab, G. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Association of transcriptionally active vitellogenin II gene with the nuclear matrix of chicken liver. Jost, J.P., Seldran, M. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Coordination of ribosome content and polysome formation during estradiol stimulation of vitellogenin synthesis in immature male chick livers. Bast, R.E., Garfield, S.A., Gehrke, L., Ilan, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Isolation of chicken vitellogenin I and III cDNAs and the developmental regulation of five estrogen-responsive genes in the embryonic liver. Evans, M.I., Silva, R., Burch, J.B. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Nucleotide sequence of a chicken vitellogenin gene and derived amino acid sequence of the encoded yolk precursor protein. van het Schip, F.D., Samallo, J., Broos, J., Ophuis, J., Mojet, M., Gruber, M., AB, G. J. Mol. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. In vitro secondary activation (memory effect) of avian vitellogenin II gene in isolated liver nuclei. Jost, J.P., Moncharmont, B., Jiricny, J., Saluz, H., Hertner, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Genomic sequencing reveals a positive correlation between the kinetics of strand-specific DNA demethylation of the overlapping estradiol/glucocorticoid-receptor binding sites and the rate of avian vitellogenin mRNA synthesis. Saluz, H.P., Jiricny, J., Jost, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Chicken vitellogenin gene-binding protein, a leucine zipper transcription factor that binds to an important control element in the chicken vitellogenin II promoter, is related to rat DBP. Iyer, S.V., Davis, D.L., Seal, S.N., Burch, J.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of vitellogenin in primary monolayer cultures of cockerel hepatocytes. Boehm, K.D., Hood, R.L., Ilan, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Mutational studies reveal a complex set of positive and negative control elements within the chicken vitellogenin II promoter. Seal, S.N., Davis, D.L., Burch, J.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Chromatin studies reveal that an ERE is located far upstream of a vitellogenin gene and that a distal tissue-specific hypersensitive site is conserved for two coordinately regulated vitellogenin genes. Burch, J.B., Fischer, A.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Does vitellogenin inhibit lipoprotein lipase in the laying hen? Griffin, H. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification and sequence analysis of the 5' end of the major chicken vitellogenin gene. Burch, J.B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of estrogen on gene expression: purification of vitellogenin messenger RNA. Wetekam, W., Mullinix, K.P., Deeley, R.G., Kronenberg, H.M., Eldridge, J.D., Meyers, M., Goldberger, R.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Vitellogenesis in Xenopus laevis and chicken: cognate ligands and oocyte receptors. The binding site for vitellogenin is located on lipovitellin I. Stifani, S., Nimpf, J., Schneider, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
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