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Gene Review

ras  -  raspberry

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG11485, CG1799, Dmel\CG1799, EP(X)1093, IMP dehydrogenase, ...
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Disease relevance of ras


High impact information on ras

  • These studies provide further insights into the function of ras as an oncogene [4].
  • These results demonstrate a requirement of Jun downstream of the sevenless/ras signaling pathway for neuronal development in the Drosophila eye [5].
  • Drosophila Rap1 protein is 88% identical to human rap1A/K-rev1 protein, a putative antagonist of ras action [6].
  • The other locus encodes a protein that is homologous to the S. cerevisiae CDC25 protein, an activator of guanine nucleotide exchange by ras proteins [7].
  • The Drosophila ras oncogenes: structure and nucleotide sequence [8].

Biological context of ras


Anatomical context of ras

  • Prior experiments have detected proteins coded for by ras genes in a large number of normal cells, cell lines, and tumors [3].
  • In larvae, ras transcripts are restricted to dividing cells (e.g., imaginal disks, gonads, and brain) [12].
  • It is also expressed in specialized tissues in which intensive exocytic/endocytic cycles take place, including the garland cells, a small group of nephrocytes which take up waste materials from the hemolymph by endocytosis. rop is regulated by a bidirectional promoter shared with Ras2, a member of the R-ras/TC21 branch of the ras supergene family [13].

Associations of ras with chemical compounds

  • The induction of visible mutations by MR is observed at only a limited number of genes, such as singed bristle (sn), raspberry eye colour (ras), yellow body colour (y) and a carmine eye colour (car) [9].
  • Identification of IMPDH as a probable product of the ras gene is compatible with the finding of an allele that requires dietary guanosine (GR), since the enzyme mediates the first of two biosynthetic steps leading from inosine monophosphate (IMP) to guanosine monophosphate (GMP) [10].
  • As in the Drosophila Dras3 protein, both rap proteins have a threonine instead of the glutamine found at position 61 of the classical ras proteins [14].
  • Of 24 ethyl methanesulphonate-induced, recessive-lethal mutations in the region 9E1-9F13 of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, eight fall into a typically homogeneous lethal complementation group associated with the raspberry (ras) locus [15].

Physical interactions of ras

  • These results establish that, in the absence of calcium, both squid and Drosophila CE bind GTP at near-physiological concentrations and hydrolyze GTP at rates comparable to unactivated ras [16].

Regulatory relationships of ras

  • Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are negative regulators of ras, which controls proliferation and differentiation in many cells [17].

Other interactions of ras

  • We show that aveugle is required between ras and raf for EGFR signaling in the eye and for mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in cell culture. aveugle encodes a small protein with a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain that can physically interact with the scaffold protein connector enhancer of Ksr (Cnk) [18].
  • We describe the developmental effects of the expression of a normal and mutated Drosophila ras gene ras2 in transgenic Drosophila [19].
  • At the amino acid level, the sequence shows 68% identity and 81% similarity to bovine smg p25a GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), a regulator of ras-like small GTPases of the rab/SEC4/YPT1 subfamily [20].
  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factor CNrasGEF activates ras in response to cAMP and cGMP [21].
  • However, a decrease in ras signaling results in enhancement of the phenotype caused by the ro-svp transgene [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ras


  1. The raspberry locus encodes Drosophila inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Slee, R., Bownes, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization and developmental expression of a Drosophila ras oncogene. Mozer, B., Marlor, R., Parkhurst, S., Corces, V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesizes proteins related to the p21 gene product of ras genes found in mammals. Papageorge, A.G., Defeo-Jones, D., Robinson, P., Temeles, G., Scolnick, E.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. The Drosophila gene hid is a direct molecular target of Ras-dependent survival signaling. Bergmann, A., Agapite, J., McCall, K., Steller, H. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Drosophila Jun mediates Ras-dependent photoreceptor determination. Bohmann, D., Ellis, M.C., Staszewski, L.M., Mlodzik, M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila roughened mutation: activation of a rap homolog disrupts eye development and interferes with cell determination. Hariharan, I.K., Carthew, R.W., Rubin, G.M. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Ras1 and a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor perform crucial steps in signaling by the sevenless protein tyrosine kinase. Simon, M.A., Bowtell, D.D., Dodson, G.S., Laverty, T.R., Rubin, G.M. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila ras oncogenes: structure and nucleotide sequence. Neuman-Silberberg, F.S., Schejter, E., Hoffmann, F.M., Shilo, B.Z. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. The stability of mutator (MR)-induced X-chromosomal recessive visible mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Eeken, J.C. Mutat. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. The raspberry locus of Drosophila melanogaster includes an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase like coding sequence. Nash, D., Hu, S., Leonard, N.J., Tiong, S.Y., Fillips, D. Genome (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of a Drosophila melanogaster cDNA encoding IMP dehydrogenase. Sifri, C.D., Wilson, K., Smolik, S., Forte, M., Ullman, B. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Tissue localization of Drosophila melanogaster ras transcripts during development. Segal, D., Shilo, B.Z. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Rop and Ras2, members of the Sec1 and Ras families, are localized in the outer membranes of labyrinthine channels and vesicles of Drosophila nephrocyte, the garland cell. Halachmi, N., Feldman, M., Kimchie, Z., Lev, Z. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Human cDNAs rap1 and rap2 homologous to the Drosophila gene Dras3 encode proteins closely related to ras in the 'effector' region. Pizon, V., Chardin, P., Lerosey, I., Olofsson, B., Tavitian, A. Oncogene (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Heterogeneity of lethals in a "simple" lethal complementation group. Janca, F.C., Woloshyn, E.P., Nash, D. Genetics (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Calcium-regulated GTPase activity in the calcium-binding protein calexcitin. Nelson, T.J., Quattrone, A., Kim, J., Pacini, A., Cesati, V., Alkon, D.L. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. GapIII, a new brain-enriched member of the GTPase-activating protein family. Baba, H., Fuss, B., Urano, J., Poullet, P., Watson, J.B., Tamanoi, F., Macklin, W.B. J. Neurosci. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. The novel SAM domain protein Aveugle is required for Raf activation in the Drosophila EGF receptor signaling pathway. Roignant, J.Y., Hamel, S., Janody, F., Treisman, J.E. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of an activated ras gene causes developmental abnormalities in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. Bishop, J.G., Corces, V.G. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. A Drosophila homolog of bovine smg p25a GDP dissociation inhibitor undergoes a shift in isoelectric point in the developmental mutant quartet. Zahner, J.E., Cheney, C.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor CNrasGEF activates ras in response to cAMP and cGMP. Pham, N., Cheglakov, I., Koch, C.A., de Hoog, C.L., Moran, M.F., Rotin, D. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Cell fate control in the Drosophila retina by the orphan receptor seven-up: its role in the decisions mediated by the ras signaling pathway. Kramer, S., West, S.R., Hiromi, Y. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
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