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Gene Review

LOC443444  -  progesterone receptor

Ovis aries

Synonyms: NR3C3, PGR
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Disease relevance of LOC443444


High impact information on LOC443444


Biological context of LOC443444

  • In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that ER gene expression increased first in the epithelium at 12 h and then in the stroma by 48 h, whereas PR gene expression first increased in the stroma and then in the epithelium [4].
  • Collectively, results suggest that uterine ER and PR gene expression is regulated in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy [5].
  • For example, PR mRNA up-regulation was prolonged in middle and deep endometrial stroma, but increases in PR protein expression were highest in superficial and middle endometrial compartments, including the luminal epithelium [6].
  • Results indicate that roIFN-tau did not stabilize or prevent autologous down-regulation of PR mRNA or protein expression in the endometrium [7].
  • To determine effects of day and pregnancy status (cyclic or pregnant) on uterine estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) gene expression, ewes were hysterectomized either on Day 1 (Day 0 = estrus/mating), 6, 11, 13, or 15 of the estrous cycle (n = 3/day) or on Day 11, 13, 15, 17, or 25 of early pregnancy (n = 5/day) [5].

Anatomical context of LOC443444


Associations of LOC443444 with chemical compounds

  • However, binding of progesterone-receptor to chromatin was greater than that of oestradiol-receptor [9].
  • RU486, but not an antagonist of PR (Organon 31710), prevented this suppression [10].
  • Thus, the efficacy of RU486 in blocking the suppressive effect of cortisol is attributed to antagonism of GR, not PR [10].
  • In the endometrium, the most striking observation was that PR mRNA and protein expression disappeared from the luminal and shallow glandular epithelium between Days 6 and 13 of the estrous cycle, whereas ER mRNA and protein expression was low on Days 6 and 11 and increased between Days 11 and 15 in the luminal and shallow glandular epithelium [5].
  • However, the increase in PR mRNA and protein was not as great in the endometrium of roIFN-tau-treated ewes as compared to controls (p < 0.08, treatment x steroid) [7].

Other interactions of LOC443444


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC443444

  • Immunohistochemistry indicated that E2 increased nuclear ER and PR protein levels in both IM and OM [16].
  • Here, we used explant cultures from control and E2-treated ewes and assessed expression of four genes (ER, PR, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], and cyclophilin [CYC] genes) that are upregulated by E2 in vivo on Northern blots [17].
  • The ER, PR and ERalpha mRNA concentrations were measured using binding and solution hybridisation assays, while the hormone level concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay [18].
  • We studied the effects of different endocrine milieus (late-follicular and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle, and ovariectomy before or after puberty) on the expression of IGF-I, thioredoxin, oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) in sheep [19].


  1. Delay of preterm birth in sheep by THG113.31, a prostaglandin F2alpha receptor antagonist. Hirst, J.J., Parkington, H.C., Young, I.R., Palliser, H.K., Peri, K.G., Olson, D.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The negative feedback actions of progesterone on gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion are transduced by the classical progesterone receptor. Skinner, D.C., Evans, N.P., Delaleu, B., Goodman, R.L., Bouchard, P., Caraty, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Estrogen regulates transcription of the ovine oxytocin receptor gene through GC-rich SP1 promoter elements. Fleming, J.G., Spencer, T.E., Safe, S.H., Bazer, F.W. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Ovine interferon-tau inhibits estrogen receptor up-regulation and estrogen-induced luteolysis in cyclic ewes. Spencer, T.E., Becker, W.C., George, P., Mirando, M.A., Ogle, T.F., Bazer, F.W. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Temporal and spatial alterations in uterine estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor gene expression during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in the ewe. Spencer, T.E., Bazer, F.W. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Estradiol up-regulates estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor gene expression in specific ovine uterine cells. Ing, N.H., Tornesi, M.B. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Ovine interferon-tau regulates expression of endometrial receptors for estrogen and oxytocin but not progesterone. Spencer, T.E., Becker, W.C., George, P., Mirando, M.A., Ogle, T.F., Bazer, F.W. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Unmasking the progesterone receptor in the preoptic area and hypothalamus of the ewe: no colocalization with gonadotropin-releasing neurons. Skinner, D.C., Caraty, A., Allingham, R. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The binding of 3H-labelled oestradiol- and progesterone-receptor complexes to hypothalamic chromatin of male and female sheep. Perry, B.N., Lopez, A. Biochem. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Does the type II glucocorticoid receptor mediate cortisol-induced suppression in pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone? Breen, K.M., Stackpole, C.A., Clarke, I.J., Pytiak, A.V., Tilbrook, A.J., Wagenmaker, E.R., Young, E.A., Karsch, F.J. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Estradiol up-regulates estrogen receptor-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid in sheep endometrium by increasing its stability. Ing, N.H., Ott, T.L. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Growth of the endometrium and cotyledons during pregnancy in the ewe: rates of protein secretion and synthesis and nuclear and cytosol steroid hormone receptor levels. Miller, B.G., Tassell, R., Stone, G.M. J. Endocrinol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Tissue-specific regulation of gastrin-releasing peptide synthesis, storage and secretion by oestrogen and progesterone. Whitley, J.C., Giraud, A.S., Mahoney, A.O., Clarke, I.J., Shulkes, A. J. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of oxytocin receptor in the placentome capsule throughout pregnancy in the ewe: the possible role of oestradiol receptor, progesterone receptor and aromatase. Leung, S.T., Reynolds, T.S., Wathes, D.C. J. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Prolactin release during the estradiol-induced LH surge in ewes: modulation by progesterone but no evidence for prolactin-releasing peptide involvement. Skinner, D.C., Caraty, A. J. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Myometrial effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators on estradiol-responsive gene expression are gene and cell-specific. Farnell, Y.Z., Ing, N.H. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Estradiol and a selective estrogen receptor modulator affect steroid hormone receptor messenger RNA levels and turnover in explant cultures of sheep endometrium. Farnell, Y.Z., Ing, N.H. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Experimentally induced subnormal or normal luteal phases in sheep: reproductive hormone profiles and uterine sex steroid receptor expression. Tasende, C., Forsberg, M., Rodríguez-Piñón, M., Acuña, S., Garófalo, E.G. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and thioredoxin are differentially expressed along the reproductive tract of the ewe during the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy. van Lier, E., Meikle, A., Eriksson, H., Sahlin, L. Acta Vet. Scand. (2006) [Pubmed]
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