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Gene Review

TARP  -  TCR gamma alternate reading frame protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD3G, TCRG, TCRGC1, TCRGC2
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Disease relevance of TARP


High impact information on TARP

  • Domain analysis of TARP identified an actin-binding domain that bears structural and primary amino acid sequence similarity to WH2 domain family proteins [6].
  • In addition, a proline-rich domain was found to promote TARP oligomerization and was required for TARP-dependent nucleation of new actin filaments [6].
  • We have named this protein TCRgamma alternate reading frame protein (TARP) [1].
  • The TARP-binding sites in the ckm enhancer and the ckb promoter were found to be functionally interchangeable [7].
  • We have previously reported that the rat brain creatine kinase (ckb) gene promoter contains an AT-rich sequence that is a binding site for a protein called TARP (TA-rich recognition protein) [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of TARP


Biological context of TARP

  • We also transfected a plasmid encoding TARP fused to green fluorescent protein into LNCaP, MDA-Pca-2b, and PC-3 cells and confirmed its specific mitochondrial localization in living cells [9].
  • We further demonstrate that the promoter specifically initiates reporter gene expression in TARP-positive prostate cancer cell lines [10].
  • Here we demonstrate that TARP expression is regulated by testosterone at the transcriptional level through specific binding of androgen receptor to an androgen response element in the proximal TARP promoter [10].
  • We propose that TARP is active in both muscle and nonmuscle cells and that it is one of many potential activators that may interact with muscle-specific regulators to determine the myogenic phenotype [7].
  • We propose that binding of TARP to the upstream consensus TATA box may block formation of the upstream initiating complex [11].

Anatomical context of TARP


Associations of TARP with chemical compounds

  • We also demonstrated that TARP expression is up-regulated by testosterone in LNCaP cells that express a functional androgen receptor [2].
  • These data demonstrate that TARP is the first prostate-specific protein localizing in mitochondria and indicate that TARP, an androgen-regulated protein, may act on mitochondria to carry out its biological functions [9].
  • Neuronal AMPA receptors comprise pore forming glutamate receptor (GluR) proteins and auxiliary transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory (TARP) subunits [12].
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of the chlamydial effector protein Tarp is species specific and not required for recruitment of actin [8].
  • Combined application of a thiourea RSB and plastic tarps had a synergetic effect in emission control and could eliminate the relatively high fumigant flux that occurs upon tarp disruption [13].

Other interactions of TARP

  • To develop a regulatory sequence for prostate-specific gene expression, we constructed a chimeric sequence consisting of the TARP promoter and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) enhancer [10].
  • The aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative histomorphometric analysis to compare the distribution and relative abundance of AQP1 on NCI TARP human multiple tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs) with normal tissues represented on the CHTN TMAs [14].
  • Here, we employ site-directed mutagenesis to determine functional interactions between GluR1 and the prototypical TARP, stargazin [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TARP

  • We used TP1 to determine the subcellular localization of TARP by Western blotting following subcellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry [9].
  • We have done experiments aimed at identifying helper T lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes for TARP for the design of T cell-based immunotherapy for prostate cancer [15].
  • Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) density map of the hetero-tetrameric AMPA-R without associated stargazin/TARP proteins as determined by cryo-negative stain single-particle electron microscopy [16].
  • Weather information, field size, application date, application rate, application type, soil incorporation depth, pesticide degradation rates in air, tarp presence, field retreatment, and other sensitive parameters are varied stochastically using Monte Carlo techniques to mimic region and crop specific agronomic practices [17].


  1. TARP: a nuclear protein expressed in prostate and breast cancer cells derived from an alternate reading frame of the T cell receptor gamma chain locus. Wolfgang, C.D., Essand, M., Vincent, J.J., Lee, B., Pastan, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. T-cell receptor gamma chain alternate reading frame protein (TARP) expression in prostate cancer cells leads to an increased growth rate and induction of caveolins and amphiregulin. Wolfgang, C.D., Essand, M., Lee, B., Pastan, I. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. A novel TARP-promoter-based adenovirus against hormone-dependent and hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Cheng, W.S., Kraaij, R., Nilsson, B., van der Weel, L., de Ridder, C.M., Tötterman, T.H., Essand, M. Mol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Tarp and Arp: How Chlamydia induces its own entry. Engel, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. A chlamydial type III translocated protein is tyrosine-phosphorylated at the site of entry and associated with recruitment of actin. Clifton, D.R., Fields, K.A., Grieshaber, S.S., Dooley, C.A., Fischer, E.R., Mead, D.J., Carabeo, R.A., Hackstadt, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Chlamydial TARP is a bacterial nucleator of actin. Jewett, T.J., Fischer, E.R., Mead, D.J., Hackstadt, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Brain and muscle creatine kinase genes contain common TA-rich recognition protein-binding regulatory elements. Horlick, R.A., Hobson, G.M., Patterson, J.H., Mitchell, M.T., Benfield, P.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the chlamydial effector protein Tarp is species specific and not required for recruitment of actin. Clifton, D.R., Dooley, C.A., Grieshaber, S.S., Carabeo, R.A., Fields, K.A., Hackstadt, T. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The T cell receptor gamma chain alternate reading frame protein (TARP), a prostate-specific protein localized in mitochondria. Maeda, H., Nagata, S., Wolfgang, C.D., Bratthauer, G.L., Bera, T.K., Pastan, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of the androgen-regulated prostate-specific T cell receptor gamma-chain alternate reading frame protein (TARP) promoter. Cheng, W.S., Giandomenico, V., Pastan, I., Essand, M. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Two different RNA polymerase II initiation complexes can assemble on the rat brain creatine kinase promoter. Mitchell, M.T., Benfield, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Stargazin interacts functionally with the AMPA receptor glutamate-binding module. Tomita, S., Shenoy, A., Fukata, Y., Nicoll, R.A., Bredt, D.S. Neuropharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Reducing 1,3-dichloropropene emissions from soil columns amended with thiourea. Zheng, W., Yates, S.R., Papiernik, S.K., Wang, Q. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Heterogeneous expression of the aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channel in tumors of the prostate, breast, ovary, colon and lung: a study using high density multiple human tumor tissue microarrays. Mobasheri, A., Airley, R., Hewitt, S.M., Marples, D. Int. J. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Recognition of prostate and breast tumor cells by helper T lymphocytes specific for a prostate and breast tumor-associated antigen, TARP. Kobayashi, H., Nagato, T., Oikawa, K., Sato, K., Kimura, S., Aoki, N., Omiya, R., Tateno, M., Celis, E. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Three-dimensional structure of an AMPA receptor without associated stargazin/TARP proteins. Nakagawa, T., Cheng, Y., Sheng, M., Walz, T. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Predicting soil fumigant air concentrations under regional and diverse agronomic conditions. Cryer, S.A. J. Environ. Qual. (2005) [Pubmed]
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