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Gene Review

UC  -  Uterine capacity

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of UC

  • These results also suggest that reducing placental and fetal weights will likely result in increased uterine capacity [1].
  • Recent evidence indicates that one critical component of the uterine capacity in pigs is placental efficiency, or the body weight of a piglet divided by the mass of its placenta [2].
  • The incompatibility between increased numbers of conceptuses surviving to the postimplantation period, in the absence of increased uterine capacity, offers a biological explanation for increased variability in birth weight and postnatal growth performance reported in greater parity sows [3].
  • Knowledge of the basic mechanisms regulating uterine development is expected to suggest means to increase uterine capacity, litter size, and neonatal survival, as well as ameliorate certain types of infertility [4].

High impact information on UC


Biological context of UC

  • Two regions possessed suggestive evidence for QTL affecting AP on chromosomes 1 and 10, and one suggestive region on chromosome 8 was identified for UC [8].
  • A multigeneration crossbred Meishan-White composite resource population was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for age at first estrus (AP) and the components of litter size: ovulation rate (OR; number of ova released in an estrous period) and uterine capacity (UC) [8].
  • These results indicate that the EPOR SNP is associated with UC and litter size in two distinct populations and could be useful in increasing litter size in swine that are not limited in OR [9].
  • These results indicate that selection for ovulation rate decreased total fetal and fetal heart weights, and that selection for UC altered the relationship between total fetal and fetal liver weights during early gestation [10].
  • White crossbred gilts from a randomly selected control line, a line selected for ovulation rate, and a line selected for uterine capacity (UC) were unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized at 160 d of age, mated at estrus, and slaughtered at 45, 65, 85, and 105 d of gestation (9 to 18 gilts for each line x day combination) [10].

Anatomical context of UC

  • Potentially viable embryos then could be further reduced to uterine capacity, the maximum number of fetuses that a female can carry to term [11].
  • This response was due to an increase of 1.30 +/- .54 eggs in ovulation rate (measured by the number of corpora lutea in cyclic and pregnant gilts) and .66 +/- 1.28 pigs in uterine capacity (measured after unilateral hysterectomy-ovariectomy) [12].
  • Compared with Western breeds of swine, ME females reach puberty earlier, ovulate more ova per estrus, and have greater uterine capacity, while intact males (boars) have smaller testes and extremely elevated plasma levels of pituitary-derived glycoprotein hormones [13].
  • Both early embryonic survival (factors inherent to the ovum and uterus, which occur before day 25 of gestation) and uterine capacity (factors inherent to uterine limitation, which occur from 30 days of gestation to parturition) may contribute to prenatal survival [14].

Associations of UC with chemical compounds


Other interactions of UC


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of UC


  1. Interrelationships among conceptus size, uterine protein secretion, fetal erythropoiesis, and uterine capacity. Vallet, J.L., Klemcke, H.G., Christenson, R.K. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparative aspects of placental efficiency. Wilson, M.E., Ford, S.P. Reprod. Suppl. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The biological basis for prenatal programming of postnatal performance in pigs. Foxcroft, G.R., Dixon, W.T., Novak, S., Putman, C.T., Town, S.C., Vinsky, M.D. J. Anim. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Uterine and placental factors regulating conceptus growth in domestic animals. Spencer, T.E., Bazer, F.W. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of progesterone, mifepristone, and estrogen treatment during early pregnancy on conceptus development and uterine capacity in Swine. Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor system in the gravid uterus of yorkshire and Meishan pigs. Vonnahme, K.A., Ford, S.P. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Progesterone and placental hormone actions on the uterus: insights from domestic animals. Spencer, T.E., Johnson, G.A., Burghardt, R.C., Bazer, F.W. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting female reproductive traits in a multigeneration Meishan-White composite swine population. Rohrer, G.A., Ford, J.J., Wise, T.H., Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K. J. Anim. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Allelic variation in the erythropoietin receptor gene is associated with uterine capacity and litter size in swine. Vallet, J.L., Freking, B.A., Leymaster, K.A., Christenson, R.K. Anim. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Changes in fetal organ weights during gestation after selection for ovulation rate and uterine capacity in swine. Vallet, J.L., Freking, B.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Integration of ovulation rate, potential embryonic viability and uterine capacity into a model of litter size in swine. Bennett, G.L., Leymaster, K.A. J. Anim. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Changes in ovulation rate, uterine capacity, uterine dimensions, and parity effects with selection for litter size in swine. Gama, L.L., Johnson, R.K. J. Anim. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of genomic regions controlling plasma FSH concentrations in Meishan-White Composite boars. Rohrer, G.A., Wise, T.H., Lunstra, D.D., Ford, J.J. Physiol. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Uterine function in Meishan pigs. Christenson, R.K., Vallet, J.L., Leymaster, K.A., Young, L.D. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of prepubertal retinyl palmitate treatment on uterine development and subsequent uterine capacity in swine. Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K. J. Anim. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of estrone treatment from day 30 to 45 of pregnancy on endometrial protein secretion and uterine capacity. Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Uterine capacity and progestin levels in superinducted gilts. Rampacek, G.R., Robison, O.W., Ulberg, L.C. J. Anim. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Linkage mapping of a SNP in the porcine MADH1 gene to a region of chromosome 8 that contains QTL for uterine capacity. Kim, J.G., Nonneman, D., Rohrer, G.A., Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K. Anim. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of uterine epidermal growth factor during early pregnancy in pigs. Kim, J.G., Vallet, J.L., Christenson, R.K. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Allelic variation in the secreted folate binding protein gene is associated with uterine capacity in swine. Vallet, J.L., Freking, B.A., Leymaster, K.A., Christenson, R.K. J. Anim. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular characterization and expression of porcine bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IB in the uterus of cyclic and pregnant gilts. Kim, J.G., Song, J.H., Vallet, J.L., Rohrer, G.A., Johnson, G.A., Joyce, M.M., Christenson, R.K. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Ovarian influence on uterine growth in prepubertal gilts. Wu, M.C., Dziuk, P.J. J. Anim. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Relationship between prenatal survival rate at 70 days of gestation and morphometric parameters of vagina, uterus and placenta in gilts. Vianna, W.L., Pinese, M.E., de Campos Rosseto, A., Bombonato, P.P., Rodrigues, P.H., de Sant'Anna Moretti, A. Reprod. Domest. Anim. (2004) [Pubmed]
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