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Gene Review

MXI1  -  MAX interactor 1, dimerization protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BHLHC11, Class C basic helix-loop-helix protein 11, MAD2, MXD2, MXI, ...
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Disease relevance of MXI1


High impact information on MXI1


Chemical compound and disease context of MXI1


Biological context of MXI1

  • Because more than 90% of prostate tumors contain no cytogenetic abnormality of 10q, the relevance of MXI1 loss and/or mutation to the vast majority of cases remains unclear [1].
  • MXI1 allelic loss was seen more frequently in recurrent/metastatic tumors (59%), as compared with in primary (33%) lesions [2].
  • Genomic organization of human MXI1, a putative tumor suppressor gene [9].
  • Furthermore, cell cycle analysis demonstrated that induction of MXI1 results in accumulation of cells in the G2-M phase [4].
  • Thus, these studies support the notion that MXI1 normally functions to suppress cell growth and suggest that loss of MXI1 function may play a role in human glioblastoma development [4].

Anatomical context of MXI1


Associations of MXI1 with chemical compounds

  • In this study, we investigated if MAD2 played a part in cellular sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, especially cisplatin, and whether it was regulated through mitotic checkpoint [14].
  • Dioxin suppresses the checkpoint protein, MAD2, by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent pathway [13].
  • LD doxorubicin-induced SLP was preceded by multinucleation and downregulation of multiple proteins with mitotic checkpoint function, including CENP-A, Mad2, BubR1, and Chk1 [15].
  • Interestingly, Mad2 protein expression with PXL treatment followed by 5-FU gradually increased after the PXL removal and 5-FU exposure [16].
  • The combination of MDI and Aerochamber was significantly better at delivering budesonide to a filter in front of the test lung (14.2% of aerosolized dose) than were either the MDI and Aerovent (3.6%) or the Ultravent or MAD2 jet nebulizers (0.02% and 0.68% of initial reservoir dose) [17].

Other interactions of MXI1

  • MXI1, a member of the MYC family of transcription factors, is thought to negatively regulate MYC function and may therefore be a potential tumor suppressor gene [9].
  • Fifty-four percent (15 of 28) of the informative cases showed loss of heterozygosity for one or both MXI1 markers, as compared with 67% (16 of 24) of the informative cases for MTS1 [2].
  • Detailed physical analysis of a 1.5-megabase YAC contig containing the MXI1 and ADRA2A genes [18].
  • The distal long arm of chromosome 10 harbors genes of biomedical interest such as MXI1, a putative tumor suppressor gene, and those encoding the adrenergic receptors alpha2A (ADRA2A) and beta1 (ADRB1) [18].
  • In addition, we utilized SSCP analysis to test two other candidate genes on 10q: FAS, a cell surface receptor which transduces an apoptotic, cell death signal and MXI1, a transcriptional repressor [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MXI1


  1. Commonly occurring loss and mutation of the MXI1 gene in prostate cancer. Prochownik, E.V., Eagle Grove, L., Deubler, D., Zhu, X.L., Stephenson, R.A., Rohr, L.R., Yin, X., Brothman, A.R. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Loss of heterozygosity in the MXI1 gene is a frequent occurrence in melanoma. Ariyanayagam-Baksh, S.M., Baksh, F.K., Swalsky, P.A., Finkelstein, S.D. Mod. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Deletions in the long arm of chromosome 10 in lymphomas with t(14;18): a pathogenetic role of the tumor supressor genes PTEN/MMAC1 and MXI1? Siebert, R., Gesk, S., Harder, S., Plötz, S., Matthiesen, P., Grote, W., Schlegelberger, B., Jandrig, B., Grasmo-Wendler, U.H., Scherneck, S., Rosenwald, A., Ott, G. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. MXI1, a putative tumor suppressor gene, suppresses growth of human glioblastoma cells. Wechsler, D.S., Shelly, C.A., Petroff, C.A., Dang, C.V. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Polo Delivers a PICH to the Kinetochore. Yen, T.J. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Waiting for anaphase: Mad2 and the spindle assembly checkpoint. Shah, J.V., Cleveland, D.W. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutation of the MXI1 gene in prostate cancer. Eagle, L.R., Yin, X., Brothman, A.R., Williams, B.J., Atkin, N.B., Prochownik, E.V. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. No germline mutations in the dimerization domain of MXI1 in prostate cancer clusters. The CRC/BPG UK Familial Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators. Cancer Research Campaign/British Prostate Group. Edwards, S.M., Dearnaley, D.P., Ardern-Jones, A., Hamoudi, R.A., Easton, D.F., Ford, D., Shearer, R., Dowe, A., Eeles, R.A. Br. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Genomic organization of human MXI1, a putative tumor suppressor gene. Wechsler, D.S., Shelly, C.A., Dang, C.V. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Mxi1 isoforms are expressed in hematological cell lines and normal bone marrow. Kawamata, N., Sugimoto, K.J., Sakajiri, S., Oshimi, K., Koeffler, H.P. Int. J. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Mxi1 mutations in human neurofibrosarcomas. Li, X.J., Wang, D.Y., Zhu, Y., Guo, R.J., Wang, X.D., Lubomir, K., Mukai, K., Sasaki, H., Yoshida, H., Oka, T., Machinami, R., Shinmura, K., Tanaka, M., Sugimura, H. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin drives kinetochore protein transport to the spindle poles and has a role in mitotic spindle checkpoint inactivation. Howell, B.J., McEwen, B.F., Canman, J.C., Hoffman, D.B., Farrar, E.M., Rieder, C.L., Salmon, E.D. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Dioxin suppresses the checkpoint protein, MAD2, by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent pathway. Oikawa, K., Ohbayashi, T., Mimura, J., Iwata, R., Kameta, A., Evine, K., Iwaya, K., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., Kuroda, M., Mukai, K. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Mitotic arrest deficient 2 expression induces chemosensitization to a DNA-damaging agent, cisplatin, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Cheung, H.W., Jin, D.Y., Ling, M.T., Wong, Y.C., Wang, Q., Tsao, S.W., Wang, X. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Two distinct modes of cell death induced by doxorubicin: apoptosis and cell death through mitotic catastrophe accompanied by senescence-like phenotype. Eom, Y.W., Kim, M.A., Park, S.S., Goo, M.J., Kwon, H.J., Sohn, S., Kim, W.H., Yoon, G., Choi, K.S. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Administration sequence-dependent antitumor effects of paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil in the human gastric cancer cell line MKN45. Toiyama, Y., Tanaka, K., Konishi, N., Mohri, Y., Tonouchi, H., Miki, C., Kusunoki, M. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Delivery of micronized budesonide suspension by metered dose inhaler and jet nebulizer into a neonatal ventilator circuit. Arnon, S., Grigg, J., Nikander, K., Silverman, M. Pediatr. Pulmonol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Detailed physical analysis of a 1.5-megabase YAC contig containing the MXI1 and ADRA2A genes. Manca, A., Volpi, E.V., Laficara, F., Muresu, R., Gray, I.C., Spurr, N.K., Nobile, C. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Microsatellite deletion mapping on chromosome 10q and mutation analysis of MMAC1, FAS, and MXI1 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Fults, D., Pedone, C.A., Thompson, G.E., Uchiyama, C.M., Gumpper, K.L., Iliev, D., Vinson, V.L., Tavtigian, S.V., Perry, W.L. Int. J. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Mxi1 tumor suppressor gene is not mutated in primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Bartsch, D., Peiffer, S.L., Kaleem, Z., Wells, S.A., Goodfellow, P.J. Cancer Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
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