The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Slc6a8  -  solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CHOT1, CHT1, CRT, CT1, Creatine transporter 1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Slc6a8


High impact information on Slc6a8

  • The characteristics of CHT1-mediated choline uptake essentially match those of high-affinity choline uptake in rat brain synaptosomes [2].
  • CHT1 is not homologous to neurotransmitter transporters, but is homologous to members of the Na+-dependent glucose transporter family [2].
  • This study provides the first example of CHT1 expression in neurons which do not use acetylcholine as neurotransmitter [3].
  • Based on the observation that the localization of CHT1 to the plasma membrane is transient, we propose that acetylcholine synthesis may be influenced by processes that lead to the attenuation of constitutive CHT1 endocytosis [4].
  • Here we found that CHT1 is rapidly and constitutively internalized in clathrin-coated vesicles to Rab5-positive early endosomes [4].

Biological context of Slc6a8


Anatomical context of Slc6a8


Associations of Slc6a8 with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSION: Increases in myocellular creatine content after starvation are associated with reduced serine phosphorylation of the creatine transporter [5].
  • Maintenance of acetylcholine synthesis depends on the effective functioning of a high-affinity sodium-dependent choline transporter (CHT1) [4].
  • CHT1 internalization is controlled by an atypical carboxyl-terminal dileucine-like motif (L531, V532) which, upon replacement by alanine residues, blocks CHT1 internalization in both human embryonic kidney 293 cells and primary cortical neurons and results in both increased CHT1 cell surface expression and choline transport activity [4].
  • In the motor unit, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR have demonstrated that CHT1 is restricted to motoneurons and absent from the non-neuronal ACh-synthesizing elements, e.g. skeletal muscle fibres [11].
  • Our studies indicate that mitochondria may represent a major compartment of CRT localization, thus providing a new aspect to the current debate about the existence and whereabouts of intracellular Cr and PCr compartments that have been inferred from [(14)C]PCr/Cr measurements in vivo as well as from recent in vivo NMR studies [12].

Regulatory relationships of Slc6a8


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Slc6a8

  • Following 48 h of experimental procedures, the expression of all these four molecular markers of plasticity was reduced in SD and CT1 groups compared to the CT2 and cage control groups [14].
  • Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed significant amounts of CHOT1 mRNA in brain, cerebellum, spinal cord and, to a lesser extent, heart, but only very low expression in lung, kidney and muscle [9].
  • In addition, CHT1 is also present in parasympathetic neurons of the tongue, as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR [11].
  • The high-affinity Na+-dependent choline transporter, CHT1, is not expressed in astrocytes as evidenced by RT-PCR [15].
  • In case of the tracheal epithelium, CHT1 was restricted to the apical membrane of the ciliated cells, as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning and electron microscopy using an affinity-purified CHT1 antiserum [16].


  1. Therapeutic potential of cardiotrophin 1 in fulminant hepatic failure: dual roles in antiapoptosis and cell repair. Ho, D.W., Yang, Z.F., Lau, C.K., Tam, K.H., To, J.Y., Poon, R.T., Fan, S.T. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and characterization of the high-affinity choline transporter. Okuda, T., Haga, T., Kanai, Y., Endou, H., Ishihara, T., Katsura, I. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential expression and regulation of the high-affinity choline transporter CHT1 and choline acetyltransferase in neurons of superior cervical ganglia. Lecomte, M.J., De Gois, S., Guerci, A., Ravassard, P., Faucon Biguet, N., Mallet, J., Berrard, S. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Constitutive high-affinity choline transporter endocytosis is determined by a carboxyl-terminal tail dileucine motif. Ribeiro, F.M., Black, S.A., Cregan, S.P., Prado, V.F., Prado, M.A., Rylett, R.J., Ferguson, S.S. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Myocellular creatine and creatine transporter serine phosphorylation after starvation. Zhao, C.R., Shang, L., Wang, W., Jacobs, D.O. J. Surg. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Creatine synthesis and transport during rat embryogenesis: spatiotemporal expression of AGAT, GAMT and CT1. Braissant, O., Henry, H., Villard, A.M., Speer, O., Wallimann, T., Bachmann, C. BMC Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Creatine transporter protein content, localization, and gene expression in rat skeletal muscle. Murphy, R., McConell, G., Cameron-Smith, D., Watt, K., Ackland, L., Walzel, B., Wallimann, T., Snow, R. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Creatine transporter activity and content in the rat heart supplemented by and depleted of creatine. Boehm, E., Chan, S., Monfared, M., Wallimann, T., Clarke, K., Neubauer, S. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Primary structure and functional expression of a choline transporter expressed in the rat nervous system. Mayser, W., Schloss, P., Betz, H. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Endogenous synthesis and transport of creatine in the rat brain: an in situ hybridization study. Braissant, O., Henry, H., Loup, M., Eilers, B., Bachmann, C. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Localisation of the high-affinity choline transporter-1 in the rat skeletal motor unit. Lips, K.S., Pfeil, U., Haberberger, R.V., Kummer, W. Cell Tissue Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. New creatine transporter assay and identification of distinct creatine transporter isoforms in muscle. Walzel, B., Speer, O., Boehm, E., Kristiansen, S., Chan, S., Clarke, K., Magyar, J.P., Richter, E.A., Wallimann, T. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Growth hormone induces myocardial expression of creatine transporter and decreases plasma levels of IL-1beta in rats during early postinfarct cardiac remodeling. Omerovic, E., Bollano, E., Lorentzon, M., Walser, M., Mattsson-Hultén, L., Isgaard, J. Growth Horm. IGF Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Suppression of hippocampal plasticity-related gene expression by sleep deprivation in rats. Guzman-Marin, R., Ying, Z., Suntsova, N., Methippara, M., Bashir, T., Szymusiak, R., Gomez-Pinilla, F., McGinty, D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular and functional characterization of an Na+-independent choline transporter in rat astrocytes. Inazu, M., Takeda, H., Matsumiya, T. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of the high-affinity choline transporter, CHT1, in the rat trachea. Pfeil, U., Lips, K.S., Eberling, L., Grau, V., Haberberger, R.V., Kummer, W. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities