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Gene Review

YY1AP1  -  YY1 associated protein 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HCCA1, HCCA2, Hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility protein, Hepatocellular carcinoma-associated protein 2, YAP, ...
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Disease relevance of YY1AP1


High impact information on YY1AP1

  • Transforming properties of YAP, a candidate oncogene on the chromosome 11q22 amplicon [6].
  • In nontransformed mammary epithelial cells, overexpression of human YAP induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suppression of apoptosis, growth factor-independent proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar [6].
  • Together, these observations point to a potential oncogenic role for YAP in 11q22-amplified human cancers, and they suggest that this highly conserved signaling pathway identified in Drosophila regulates both cellular proliferation and apoptosis in mammalian epithelial cells [6].
  • The WW domains of Pin and YAP do not support more than one type of packing each, leading to monophasic folding kinetics [7].
  • Evolutionary analysis of Y haplotypes suggests that polymorphisms at the YAP (DYS287) and DXYS5Y loci originated a single time, whereas restriction patterns at the DYS1 locus and microsatellite alleles at the DYS19 locus arose more than once [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of YY1AP1


Biological context of YY1AP1

  • The transactivation region of YY1AP would seem to be localized within the section of amino acids 260-345 [10].
  • By random mutagenesis, we switched the specificity of the Yes-associated protein (YAP) WW1 domain, a Group I WW domain, to that of the FE65 WW domain, which belongs to Group II [11].
  • When treated with antisense oligonucleotides to HCCA1, HCCA1 expression in HCC cells (HuH-7) was effectively suppressed and cell growth was down-regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner [12].
  • Phylogenetic comparisons with other Alu sequences reveal that the YAP element is a member of the polymorphic subfamily-3 (PSF-3), a previously undefined subfamily of Alu elements [13].
  • Only subsets of the five YAP haplotypes were found outside of Africa. Patterns of observed variation were compatible with a variety of hypotheses, including multiple human migrations and range expansions [14].

Anatomical context of YY1AP1

  • Northern blot analysis revealed that YY1AP is ubiquitously expressed in various human tissues and cancer cell lines [10].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of second-order bile ducts, vascular invasion, and lobar atrophy are more likely in patients with HCCA [15].
  • BACKGROUND: Obstruction at the hepatic duct confluence is generally due to hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) [15].
  • BACKGROUND: Current approaches to adjuvant treatment after resection of gallbladder carcinoma (GBCA) and hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) are based on an incomplete understanding of the recurrence patterns of these diseases [16].

Associations of YY1AP1 with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of YY1AP1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of YY1AP1

  • Western blot analysis showed that HCCA2 could be expressed in transfected 293 cells [1].
  • For HCCA, there was a trend for lower disease-free survival in females (p = 0.056; log rank test) [4].
  • Multiple factors were evaluated to determine their influence on survival; i.e., HBV serology, United Network for Organ Sharing status, fulminant versus chronic HBV, incidence of rejection, immunosuppression, transfusion requirements, and presence of HCCA [5].
  • However, because the interior branching order of the Y chromosome genealogical tree remains unknown, it is impossible to impute the origin of the YAP clade with certainty [20].
  • The identification of the tryptic fragments was achieved by direct MALDI-MS analysis by using three different matrices (DHB, SA and HCCA) in combination with the most compatible sample preparation procedures in order to obtain the maximum sequence coverage [21].


  1. Identification and characterization of a novel human hepatocellular carcinoma-associated gene. Wang, Z.X., Wang, H.Y., Wu, M.C. Br. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Large-scale search of single nucleotide polymorphisms for hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility genes in patients with hepatitis C. Kato, N., Ji, G., Wang, Y., Baba, M., Hoshida, Y., Otsuka, M., Taniguchi, H., Moriyama, M., Dharel, N., Goto, T., Shao, R.X., Matsuura, T., Ishii, K., Shiina, S., Kawabe, T., Muramatsu, M., Omata, M. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. NF-kappa B and Oct-2 synergize to activate the human 3' Igh hs4 enhancer in B cells. Sepulveda, M.A., Emelyanov, A.V., Birshtein, B.K. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Liver resection for hilar and peripheral cholangiocarcinomas: a study of 62 cases. Madariaga, J.R., Iwatsuki, S., Todo, S., Lee, R.G., Irish, W., Starzl, T.E. Ann. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Should liver transplantation be performed for patients with hepatitis B? Eason, J.D., Freeman, R.B., Rohrer, R.J., Lewis, W.D., Jenkins, R., Dienstag, J., Cosimi, A.B. Transplantation (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Transforming properties of YAP, a candidate oncogene on the chromosome 11q22 amplicon. Overholtzer, M., Zhang, J., Smolen, G.A., Muir, B., Li, W., Sgroi, D.C., Deng, C.X., Brugge, J.S., Haber, D.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Integrating folding kinetics and protein function: biphasic kinetics and dual binding specificity in a WW domain. Karanicolas, J., Brooks, C.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Y chromosomal DNA variation and the peopling of Japan. Hammer, M.F., Horai, S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation patterns are influenced by Zebularine and SAHA in pancreatic cancer models. Neureiter, D., Zopf, S., Leu, T., Dietze, O., Hauser-Kronberger, C., Hahn, E.G., Herold, C., Ocker, M. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. YY1AP, a novel co-activator of YY1. Wang, C.Y., Liang, Y.J., Lin, Y.S., Shih, H.M., Jou, Y.S., Yu, W.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. A single point mutation in a group I WW domain shifts its specificity to that of group II WW domains. Espanel, X., Sudol, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene which is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. Zeng, J.Z., Wang, H.Y., Chen, Z.J., Ullrich, A., Wu, M.C. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A recent insertion of an alu element on the Y chromosome is a useful marker for human population studies. Hammer, M.F. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. The geographic distribution of human Y chromosome variation. Hammer, M.F., Spurdle, A.B., Karafet, T., Bonner, M.R., Wood, E.T., Novelletto, A., Malaspina, P., Mitchell, R.J., Horai, S., Jenkins, T., Zegura, S.L. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential diagnosis of proximal biliary obstruction. Are, C., Gonen, M., D'Angelica, M., Dematteo, R.P., Fong, Y., Blumgart, L.H., Jarnagin, W.R. Surgery (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Patterns of initial disease recurrence after resection of gallbladder carcinoma and hilar cholangiocarcinoma: implications for adjuvant therapeutic strategies. Jarnagin, W.R., Ruo, L., Little, S.A., Klimstra, D., D'Angelica, M., DeMatteo, R.P., Wagman, R., Blumgart, L.H., Fong, Y. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate-derivatized peptides on AnchorChip sample supports using the sodium-tolerant matrix 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone and diammonium citrate. Oehlers, L.P., Perez, A.N., Walter, R.B. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel anticoagulant purified from fish protein hydrolysate inhibits factor XIIa and platelet aggregation. Rajapakse, N., Jung, W.K., Mendis, E., Moon, S.H., Kim, S.K. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Does additional doxorubicin chemotherapy improve outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by liver transplantation? Pokorny, H., Gnant, M., Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S., Gollackner, B., Steiner, B., Steger, G., Steininger, R., Mühlbacher, F. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Rare deep-rooting Y chromosome lineages in humans: lessons for phylogeography. Weale, M.E., Shah, T., Jones, A.L., Greenhalgh, J., Wilson, J.F., Nymadawa, P., Zeitlin, D., Connell, B.A., Bradman, N., Thomas, M.G. Genetics (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Proteomics of gluten: mapping of the 1Bx7 glutenin subunit in Chinese Spring cultivar by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. Alberghina, G., Cozzolino, R., Fisichella, S., Garozzo, D., Savarino, A. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2005) [Pubmed]
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