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Gene Review

Adar  -  adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific

Mus musculus

Synonyms: ADAR1, AV242451, Adar1, Adar1p110, Adar1p150, ...
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Disease relevance of Adar


High impact information on Adar


Biological context of Adar

  • Assignment of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene (Adar) to mouse chromosome 3F2 by in situ hybridization [6].
  • Two regions within ADAR1 are defined that act independently of each other to induce translation: the first includes the double-stranded RNA binding domains (DRBMs) of ADAR1 while the second maps to the C-terminal portion of the catalytic domain [7].
  • Here we report that the inflammation-induced up-regulation of ADAR1 involves differential production and intracellular localization of several isoforms with distinct RNA-binding domains and localization signals [8].
  • Although live ADAR1-/- embryos with normal gross appearance could be recovered up to E11.5, widespread apoptosis was detected in many tissues [9].
  • Our results demonstrate an essential requirement for ADAR1 in embryogenesis and suggest that it functions to promote survival of numerous tissues by editing one or more double-stranded RNAs required for protection against stress-induced apoptosis [9].

Anatomical context of Adar

  • Induction of protein translation by ADAR1 within living cell nuclei is not dependent on RNA editing [7].
  • In agreement with this observation, endogenous ADAR1 was identified in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of mouse splenocytes and HeLa cells [8].
  • Fibroblasts derived from ADAR1-/- embryos were also prone to apoptosis induced by serum deprivation [9].
  • Probably as a consequence of these developmental impairments, ADAR1-deficient embryonic stem cells failed to contribute to liver, bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and blood in adult chimeric mice [10].
  • In contrast to ADAR1, ADAR2 transcripts in the pancreatic islets exhibit a nearly 2-fold increase in insulin-resistant mice chronically fed a high fat diet [11].

Associations of Adar with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Adar


Other interactions of Adar


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Adar

  • In this study, we investigated the formation of complexes between differentially epitope-tagged ADAR monomers by sequential affinity chromatography and size exclusion column chromatography [2].


  1. Double-Stranded RNA Deaminase ADAR1 Increases Host Susceptibility to Virus Infection. Nie, Y., Hammond, G.L., Yang, J.H. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Requirement of dimerization for RNA editing activity of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA. Cho, D.S., Yang, W., Lee, J.T., Shiekhattar, R., Murray, J.M., Nishikura, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. ADAR1 is involved in the development of microvascular lung injury. Rabinovici, R., Kabir, K., Chen, M., Su, Y., Zhang, D., Luo, X., Yang, J.H. Circ. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Requirement of the RNA editing deaminase ADAR1 gene for embryonic erythropoiesis. Wang, Q., Khillan, J., Gadue, P., Nishikura, K. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Mammalian RNA-dependent deaminases and edited mRNAs. Maas, S., Melcher, T., Seeburg, P.H. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Assignment of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene (Adar) to mouse chromosome 3F2 by in situ hybridization. Weier, H.U., George, C.X., Lersch, R.A., Breitweser, S., Cheng, J.F., Samuel, C.E. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of protein translation by ADAR1 within living cell nuclei is not dependent on RNA editing. Herbert, A., Wagner, S., Nickerson, J.A. Mol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Intracellular localization of differentially regulated RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoforms in inflammation. Yang, J.H., Nie, Y., Zhao, Q., Su, Y., Pypaert, M., Su, H., Rabinovici, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Stress-induced apoptosis associated with null mutation of ADAR1 RNA editing deaminase gene. Wang, Q., Miyakoda, M., Yang, W., Khillan, J., Stachura, D.L., Weiss, M.J., Nishikura, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Liver disintegration in the mouse embryo caused by deficiency in the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1. Hartner, J.C., Schmittwolf, C., Kispert, A., Müller, A.M., Higuchi, M., Seeburg, P.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. RNA Editing by ADAR2 Is Metabolically Regulated in Pancreatic Islets and beta-Cells. Gan, Z., Zhao, L., Yang, L., Huang, P., Zhao, F., Li, W., Liu, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Altered RNA editing in mice lacking ADAR2 autoregulation. Feng, Y., Sansam, C.L., Singh, M., Emeson, R.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Widespread inosine-containing mRNA in lymphocytes regulated by ADAR1 in response to inflammation. Yang, J.H., Luo, X., Nie, Y., Su, Y., Zhao, Q., Kabir, K., Zhang, D., Rabinovici, R. Immunology (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. ADAR2-mediated editing of RNA substrates in the nucleolus is inhibited by C/D small nucleolar RNAs. Vitali, P., Basyuk, E., Le Meur, E., Bertrand, E., Muscatelli, F., Cavaillé, J., Huttenhofer, A. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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