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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

OSTC  -  oligosaccharyltransferase complex subunit...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DC2, HDCMD45P, HSPC307, Hydrophobic protein HSF-28, Oligosaccharyltransferase complex subunit OSTC
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Disease relevance of DC2

  • Using human dendritic cells (DCs) and naive CD4(+) T cells, we separately evaluated Th1 and Th2 development under the selective differentiating pressures of DC1-inducing pertussis toxin (PT) and DC2-inducing cholera toxin (CT) [1].
  • We shall examine circulating dendritic cell (DC) subsets [precursor (p) DC1 and p DC2] including cells of donor origin, and assess both the frequency and function of donor-reactive T cells by ELISPOT and by trans-vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity analysis in a surrogate murine model [2].
  • Secondly, in the peripheral blood, we found expression of DC-SIGN on a small subset of BDCA-2+ plasmacytoid DC precursors (pDC2), concordant with our finding of large numbers of DC-SIGN-positive cells in allergic nasal polyps (previously shown to be infiltrated by DC2) [3].
  • Given the central role of DC, and in particular, DC2, in linking innate and adaptive immune responses, these qualitative and quantitative changes in pDC2 are likely to be key contributors to HIV pathogenesis [4].
  • We prospectively determined pre-transplant and post transplant DC levels, including DC1 and DC2 subset levels, in 53 patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBC NHL) undergoing autologous HSCT [5].

Psychiatry related information on DC2

  • In both groups, both DC1 and DC2 counts were already significantly lower than in normal individuals before conditioning therapy [6].

High impact information on DC2


Biological context of DC2

  • RESULTS: At time of engraftment, DC chimerism analyses showed complete chimerism in 76.3% (DC1)/79.5% (DC2), mixed chimerism (MC) in 21.0% (DC1)/17.9% (DC2) and no chimerism in 2.7% (DC1)/2.6% (DC2) of the patients [11].
  • The proportion and activation of the tolerogenic DC2 phenotype was lower, whereas the percentage of the ldDC phenotype was higher, in the O group (P=0.006) [12].
  • At the moment of relapse, a decrease of DC1/DC2 numbers was observed in four patients and the presence of two different DC populations one with a normal karyotype, and the other with the same cytogenetic abnormality as the malignant clone was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis [13].

Anatomical context of DC2

  • Of note, there was a putative centrosomal protein that shared an epitope with TLR3 in myeloid DCs and precursor DC2, but not peripheral blood monocytes [14].
  • This study demonstrates that IL-10-producing CD8 T cells are regulatory T cells, which provides a cellular basis for the phenomenon of CD8 T cell-mediated immunosuppression and suggests a role for plasmacytoid DC2 in immunological tolerance [7].
  • Signals controlling Th2 cell polarization, especially those acting by polarizing dendritic cells (DC) into Th2-promoting DC (DC2), are not well known [15].
  • Patients who received unmanipulated marrow or peripheral blood stem cells reached pre-conditioning levels of DC1 and DC2 cells on day +20 [16].
  • Like 2006, two comparator mycobacterial adjuvant formulations activated DC1, DC2, monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, but only 2006 had a strong effect on B cells [17].

Associations of DC2 with chemical compounds

  • These data show that histamine is a potent DC2-polarizing factor and provide evidence for a novel mechanism that explains the initiation and maintenance of a predominant Th2 response in allergic disorders [15].
  • Finally, we present evidence that of all the dicarboxylates tested only DC2-DC4 can be transported by the classical dicarboxylate carrier [18].
  • In this paper, we examine the mitochondrial transport of alpha, omega-dicarboxylates ranging from oxalate (DC2) to sebacate (DC10) [18].
  • In contrast, PGE2 primes for a low IL-12 production ability and a Th2-driving capacity (APC2 or DC2) [19].
  • The ability of DC1 and DC2 to induce T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion were studied using thymidine incorporation and ELISA techniques [20].

Regulatory relationships of DC2

  • The CD34+ DC generated represent a population of myeloid DC functioning as DC1 but phenotypically expressing markers characteristic of both DC1 and DC2 [21].
  • Our data suggest that IFN-beta in vitro can induce the development of DC2, which provide a permissive environment for Th2 differentiation [22].

Other interactions of DC2

  • In precursor DC2, however, TLR3 could not be detected inside or outside the cells [14].
  • DC2 precursors (pDC2) or plasmacytoid DC were recently identified as a Th2-skewing and IFN-alpha-producing human DC subset [23].
  • PBSC transplants contained higher doses of DC2 than marrow transplants (median, 2.4 x 10(6)/kg versus 0.5 x 10(6)/kg) (P =.006), whereas the dose of DC1 was comparable [9].
  • EDC cross-linking of purified dynein revealed that LC7b interacts with LC3, an outer dynein arm thioredoxin; DC2, an outer arm docking complex component; and also with the phosphoprotein IC138 from inner arm I1 [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DC2

  • The reconstitution of circulating DCs after transplantation was not affected by Campath-1G and in both groups DC1 (CD11c(+)) recovered more rapidly than DC2 (CD11c(-)) [25].
  • Around the time of engraftment, peripheral blood underwent flow cytometry analysis for DCs, and the cells were divided as DC1 and DC2 [26].
  • Introduction: TH2-inducing DC2 for immunotherapy [27].
  • We have used multicolor microfluorometry to enumerate DC1 and DC2 in the peripheral blood of normal donors [9].
  • DC1 and DC2 loss was higher in stage D versus stage ABC patients (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively); surgery and chemotherapy appeared to attenuate a DC defect, although the restoration of normal PBDC levels is completed only at 6 and 12 months after diagnosis, respectively [28].


  1. Modulation of CD4 Th cell differentiation by ganglioside GD1a in vitro. Shen, W., Falahati, R., Stark, R., Leitenberg, D., Ladisch, S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Monitoring the patient off immunosuppression. Conceptual framework for a proposed tolerance assay study in liver transplant recipients. Thomson, A.W., Mazariegos, G.V., Reyes, J., Donnenberg, V.S., Donnenberg, A.D., Bentlejewski, C., Zahorchak, A.F., O'Connell, P.J., Fung, J.J., Jankowska-Gan, E., Burlingham, W.J., Heeger, P.S., Zeevi, A. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Constitutive and induced expression of DC-SIGN on dendritic cell and macrophage subpopulations in situ and in vitro. Soilleux, E.J., Morris, L.S., Leslie, G., Chehimi, J., Luo, Q., Levroney, E., Trowsdale, J., Montaner, L.J., Doms, R.W., Weissman, D., Coleman, N., Lee, B. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Decreased interferon-alpha production in HIV-infected patients correlates with numerical and functional deficiencies in circulating type 2 dendritic cell precursors. Feldman, S., Stein, D., Amrute, S., Denny, T., Garcia, Z., Kloser, P., Sun, Y., Megjugorac, N., Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P. Clin. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Dendritic cells in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: graft content and post transplant recovery predict survival. Dean, R., Masci, P., Pohlman, B., Andresen, S., Serafino, S., Sobecks, R., Kuczkowski, E., Curtis, J., Maciejewski, J., Rybicki, L., Kalaycio, M., Hsi, E., Theil, K., Bolwell, B.J. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. CD34+-selected versus unmanipulated autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: impact on dendritic and immune recovery and on complications due to infection. Damiani, D., Stocchi, R., Masolini, P., Michelutti, A., Geromin, A., Sperotto, A., Skert, C., Michieli, M., Baccarani, M., Fanin, R. Ann. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Generation of human CD8 T regulatory cells by CD40 ligand-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Gilliet, M., Liu, Y.J. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Id2 and Id3 inhibit development of CD34(+) stem cells into predendritic cell (pre-DC)2 but not into pre-DC1. Evidence for a lymphoid origin of pre-DC2. Spits, H., Couwenberg, F., Bakker, A.Q., Weijer, K., Uittenbogaart, C.H. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilizes T helper 2-inducing dendritic cells. Arpinati, M., Green, C.L., Heimfeld, S., Heuser, J.E., Anasetti, C. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The human protein kinase gene PKX1 on Xp22.3 displays Xp/Yp homology and is a site of chromosomal instability. Klink, A., Schiebel, K., Winkelmann, M., Rao, E., Horsthemke, B., Lüdecke, H.J., Claussen, U., Scherer, G., Rappold, G. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Peripheral dendritic cell chimerism in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients. Pihusch, M., Boeck, S., Hamann, M., Pihusch, V., Heller, T., Diem, H., Rolf, B., Pihusch, R., Andreesen, R., Holler, E., Kolb, H.J. Transplantation (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Varying blood monocyte and dendritic cell responses after laparoscopic versus open gastric bypass surgery. McAuliffe, P.F., Efron, P.A., Scumpia, P.O., Uchida, T., Mutschlecner, S.C., Rout, W.R., Moldawer, L.L., Cendan, J.C. Obesity surgery : the official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery and of the Obesity Surgery Society of Australia and New Zealand. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Dendritic cell recovery after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in acute leukemia: correlations with clinical and transplant characteristics. Porta, M.D., Rigolin, G.M., Alessandrino, E.P., Maiocchi, M., Malcovati, L., Vanelli, L., Baratè, C., Rumi, E., Ciccone, M., Cuneo, A., Lazzarino, M., Castoldi, G. Eur. J. Haematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Subcellular localization of Toll-like receptor 3 in human dendritic cells. Matsumoto, M., Funami, K., Tanabe, M., Oshiumi, H., Shingai, M., Seto, Y., Yamamoto, A., Seya, T. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Histamine polarizes human dendritic cells into Th2 cell-promoting effector dendritic cells. Caron, G., Delneste, Y., Roelandts, E., Duez, C., Bonnefoy, J.Y., Pestel, J., Jeannin, P. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Dendritic cell recovery after autologous stem cell transplantation. Damiani, D., Stocchi, R., Masolini, P., Michelutti, A., Sperotto, A., Geromin, A., Skert, C., Cerno, M., Michieli, M., Baccarani, M., Fanin, R. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Whole blood cultures to assess the immunostimulatory activities of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Pichyangkul, S., Yongvanitchit, K., Kum-arb, U., Krieg, A.M., Heppner, D.G., Walsh, D.S. J. Immunol. Methods (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Mechanisms for the transport of alpha,omega-dicarboxylates through the mitochondrial inner membrane. Liu, G., Hinch, B., Beavis, A.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. The paradigm of type 1 and type 2 antigen-presenting cells. Implications for atopic allergy. Kapsenberg, M.L., Hilkens, C.M., Wierenga, E.A., Kalinski, P. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Peripheral blood stem cell harvests from G-CSF-stimulated donors contain a skewed Th2 CD4 phenotype and a predominance of type 2 dendritic cells. Klangsinsirikul, P., Russell, N.H. Exp. Hematol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. CD34+-derived CD11c+ + + BDCA-1+ + CD123+ + DC: expansion of a phenotypically undescribed myeloid DC1 population for use in adoptive immunotherapy. Ward, K.A., Stewart, L.A., Schwarer, A.P. Cytotherapy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Interferon-beta induces the development of type 2 dendritic cells. Huang, Y.M., Hussien, Y., Yarilin, D., Xiao, B.G., Liu, Y.J., Link, H. Cytokine (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of antigen-specific human CD4(+) T cell anergy by peripheral blood DC2 precursors. Kuwana, M., Kaburaki, J., Wright, T.M., Kawakami, Y., Ikeda, Y. Eur. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. The LC7 light chains of Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins interact with components required for both motor assembly and regulation. DiBella, L.M., Sakato, M., Patel-King, R.S., Pazour, G.J., King, S.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Campath-1G causes rapid depletion of circulating host dendritic cells (DCs) before allogeneic transplantation but does not delay donor DC reconstitution. Klangsinsirikul, P., Carter, G.I., Byrne, J.L., Hale, G., Russell, N.H. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Low dendritic cell count after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predicts relapse, death, and acute graft-versus-host disease. Reddy, V., Iturraspe, J.A., Tzolas, A.C., Meier-Kriesche, H.U., Schold, J., Wingard, J.R. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Introduction: TH2-inducing DC2 for immunotherapy. Liu, Y.J., Blom, B. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Dendritic cells and vascular endothelial growth factor in colorectal cancer: correlations with clinicobiological findings. Della Porta, M., Danova, M., Rigolin, G.M., Brugnatelli, S., Rovati, B., Tronconi, C., Fraulini, C., Russo Rossi, A., Riccardi, A., Castoldi, G. Oncology (2005) [Pubmed]
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