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Gene Review

SP4  -  Sp4 transcription factor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HF1B, MGC130008, MGC130009, SPR-1, Transcription factor Sp4
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Disease relevance of SP4


High impact information on SP4

  • Tissues were assayed with the monoclonal antibodies EP10 and SP4, which recognize synaptophysin, and the monoclonal antibodies SP6 and SP14, which detect syntaxin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25-kd immunoreactivities, respectively [6].
  • Expression of human squamous cell differentiation marker, SPR1, in tracheobronchial epithelium depends on JUN and TRE motifs [7].
  • Tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) cells that normally do not express the squamous cell differentiation marker gene, SPR1, can be induced to produce it by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) [7].
  • The regulation of SPR1 gene expression by TPA occurs, in part, at the transcriptional level in primary human and monkey TBE cells [7].
  • SPR-2 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously, whereas SPR-1 transcripts are abundant in the brain but barely detectable in other organs [8].

Biological context of SP4

  • Human Sp4 transcription factor gene (SP4) maps to chromosome 7p15 [9].
  • Several studies have demonstrated that SPR1 antibodies react with nuclear proteins and that SPR1 is expressed in cells before entering the G0 phase of the cell cycle [1].
  • SPR expression can be regulated by transcriptional factors, by posttranscriptional factors, or by factors that affect SPR1 mRNA translation or protein turnover [1].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of G(0)SPR1 showed a high homology to the family of SPR1 from different species [10].
  • Consistent with this phenotype, spr1 plants exhibited normal PI induction in response to oligosaccharide signals that are thought to play a role in the local wound response [11].

Anatomical context of SP4

  • By day 10, labeled macrophages had large amounts of surface antigen and were in SP3 and SP4 [12].
  • In our assay, two strains of M. fermentans were grown in SP4 glucose broth, mixed with fresh whole blood samples (n > 20), and incubated at 37 degrees C. The blood samples were then stained with a polyclonal antibody to M. fermentans, a monoclonal antibody to B-lymphocytes (CD19), and a monoclonal antibody to T-lymphocytes (CD3) [13].
  • However, expression of SPR1 in nonsquamous tissues and cell lines indicates a function not associated with squamous differentiation [1].
  • Although SPR1 is absent in normal mucociliary epithelium of the respiratory tract, epithelia that undergo squamous differentiation in response to vitamin-A deficiency or to injury owing to exposure to environmental toxicants express SPR1 [1].
  • C355.1, and a human combinatorial antibody, SP4, we examined the ducts of these salivary glands for the presence of the characteristic aberrant staining pattern found in patients with PBC [3].

Associations of SP4 with chemical compounds

  • Like Sp1, SPR-1 and SPR-2 contain glutamine and serine/threonine rich amino acid stretches [8].
  • Other synthetic polyesters such as poly(trimethylene adipate) (SP3/6), poly(tetramethylene adipate) (SP4/6), and aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters from 1,4-butanediol, terephthalic acid, and adipic acid (BTA-copolymers) exhibit only very low anaerobic microbial susceptibility [14].
  • We have developed specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays for progesterone in saliva (SP4) easily applicable in routine practice to assess ovarian function [15].
  • Here, this question was addressed by characterizing a systemin-insensitive mutant (spr1) that was previously identified as a suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses [11].
  • In contrast to JA biosynthetic or JA signaling mutants that lack both local and systemic PI expression in response to wounding, spr1 plants were deficient mainly in the systemic response [11].

Other interactions of SP4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SP4

  • Using PCR, low levels of SPR1 mRNA were identified in a number of nondifferentiating cell lines and in nonsquamous tissues [10].


  1. Expression, regulation, and function of the SPR family of proteins. A review. Tesfaigzi, J., Carlson, D.M. Cell Biochem. Biophys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Consistent immunostaining for cyclin D1 can be achieved on a routine basis using a newly available rabbit monoclonal antibody. Cheuk, W., Wong, K.O., Wong, C.S., Chan, J.K. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Primary biliary cirrhosis an epithelitis: evidence of abnormal salivary gland immunohistochemistry. Tsuneyama, K., Van De Water, J., Yamazaki, K., Suzuki, K., Sato, S., Takeda, Y., Ruebner, B., Yost, B.A., Nakanuma, Y., Coppel, R.L., Gershwin, M.E. Autoimmunity (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Placenta-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, SP4) in trophoblastic tumours. Wahlström, T., Teisner, B., Lee, J.N., Grudzinskas, J.G., Seppälä, M., Folkersen, J. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Defects in cardiac conduction system lineages and malignant arrhythmias: developmental pathways and disease. St Amand, T.R., Lu, J.T., Chien, K.R. Novartis Found. Symp. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased concentrations of presynaptic proteins in the cingulate cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. Gabriel, S.M., Haroutunian, V., Powchik, P., Honer, W.G., Davidson, M., Davies, P., Davis, K.L. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of human squamous cell differentiation marker, SPR1, in tracheobronchial epithelium depends on JUN and TRE motifs. Reddy, S.P., Chuu, Y.J., Lao, P.N., Donn, J., Ann, D.K., Wu, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning by recognition site screening of two novel GT box binding proteins: a family of Sp1 related genes. Hagen, G., Müller, S., Beato, M., Suske, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Human Sp4 transcription factor gene (SP4) maps to chromosome 7p15. Kalff-Suske, M., Kunz, J., Grzeschik, K.H., Suske, G. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell cycle-specific expression of G(0)SPR1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Tesfaigzi, J., Carlson, D.M. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The tomato mutant spr1 is defective in systemin perception and the production of a systemic wound signal for defense gene expression. Lee, G.I., Howe, G.A. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Correlation of lung macrophage age and surface antigen in the hamster. Harbison, M.L., Godleski, J.J., Mortara, M., Brain, J.D. Lab. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro detection of Mycoplasma fermentans binding to B-lymphocytes in fresh peripheral blood using flow cytometry. Cheek, R.F., Olszak, I., Madoff, S., Preffer, F.I. Cytometry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Biodegradation of aliphatic homopolyesters and aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters by anaerobic microorganisms. Abou-Zeid, D.M., Müller, R.J., Deckwer, W.D. Biomacromolecules (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Radioimmunoassay of plasma and salivary progesterone during the menstrual cycle. Cedard, L., Janssens, Y., Tanguy, G., Zorn, J.R. J. Steroid Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of PDC-E2 human combinatorial autoantibodies by peptide mimotopes. Leung, P.S., Cha, S., Joplin, R.E., Galperin, C., Van de Water, J., Ansari, A.A., Coppel, R.L., Schatz, P.J., Cwirla, S., Fabris, L.E., Neuberger, J.M., Gershwin, M.E. J. Autoimmun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Cyclin D1 protein overexpression and CCND1 amplification in breast carcinomas: an immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridisation analysis. Reis-Filho, J.S., Savage, K., Lambros, M.B., James, M., Steele, D., Jones, R.L., Dowsett, M. Mod. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A: circulating levels during normal pregnancy. Folkersen, J., Grudzinskas, J.G., Hindersson, P., Teisner, B., Westergaard, J.G. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1981) [Pubmed]
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