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Disease relevance of Ruminants


Psychiatry related information on Ruminants


High impact information on Ruminants

  • In ruminants, portions of a finite store of luteal oxytocin are released synchronously by uterine PGF2alpha pulses [10].
  • The appearance of this mode of digestion has been accompanied by the recruitment of lysozyme as a bacteriolytic enzyme in the stomach both in the ruminants (for example the cow) and later in the colobine monkeys (for example the langur) [11].
  • Although beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the major protein in the whey of ruminants, it is not present in rodent milk [12].
  • Because toadfish excrete ammonia, do not use urea as an osmolyte, and have substantial levels of urease in their digestive systems, urea may serve as a transient nitrogen store, forming the basis of a nitrogen conservation shuttle system between liver and gut as in ruminants and hibernators [13].
  • However, previously defined E-selectin carbohydrate ligands, such as sialyl Lewis x on neutrophils and the HECA-452 epitope on human memory lymphocytes, are antigenically different than the carbohydrates on ruminant gamma/delta T cells since the mAbs CSLEX and HECA-452 do not recognize these cells [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ruminants


Biological context of Ruminants


Anatomical context of Ruminants

  • Luteal oxytocin in ruminants may thus serve to amplify neural oxytocin signals that are transduced by the uterus into pulses of PGF2alpha [10].
  • Subunit III, a defective serine endopeptidase lacking the typical N-terminal hydrophobic dipeptide is secreted by the pancreas of ruminant species as part of the bovine ternary complex procarboxypeptidase A-S6 [25].
  • Urinary plasminogen activators of ruminants are therefore urothelium derived rather then kidney derived as in some other species; this heterogeneity may have evolved in response to different physiological or dietary factors [26].
  • Trophoblasts of ruminant species secrete multiple forms of a novel Type I interferon (IFN-tau) for a few days preceding implantation [27].
  • Second, ruminant CD4-CD8- gamma delta T cells uniquely express a 220 kD surface Ag recognized by a panel of mAb, recently clustered as WC1 [28].

Associations of Ruminants with chemical compounds


Gene context of Ruminants

  • A long PRL receptor (lPRLR) and short (sPRLR) isoform were identified in ruminants and rodents, which differ in their distal cytoplasmic domains and possess markedly distinct signaling capacities [34].
  • The structure of the entire TRG2@ locus, the first complete physical map of any ruminant animal TCR gamma locus, is reported here [35].
  • Luteolytic substances (prolactin in rats and prostaglandin F2alpha in ruminants) appear to be involved in increased expression of MCP-1 within the corpus luteum, although it is unclear whether this is a direct or indirect effect [36].
  • Placental lactogen has probably evolved independently on three occasions, from prolactin in rodents and ruminants and from growth hormone in man [37].
  • Based on these results, it seems likely that the Bov-B LINE insert is derived from a long Bov-B LINE repetitive sequence transposed to an ancestral bcnt gene in Ruminantia and reformed as a new exon through new splicing sites in the transposed sequence [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ruminants

  • In the clinical trials in which there was complete substitution of fat-modified ruminant foods for conventional ruminant products the fall in serum cholesterol was approximately 10% [39].
  • We have now confirmed, by sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-derived genomic fragments coding for the OTR 3ICR from a variety of ruminant and non-ruminant species, that additional aa are a general phenomenon in ruminants [40].
  • Western blotting of secretory products of porcine trophoblast with anti-oPAG1 and anti-bPAG1 antisera indicated that pPAG, like PAG from ruminants, had an unexpectedly high M(r)(approximately 70,000).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[41]
  • Sera from imported and domestic ruminants were examined for antibody for CCHF virus, and ticks collected from these animals were tested with an antigen-capture ELISA [42].
  • Following development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for somatostatin, the immunoreactivity of this peptide in the plasma of ruminants was measured and the levels in sheep were 9-31 pM (mean 18 +/- 7 pM, n = 48), in lambs 10-54 pM (mean 25 +/- 10 pM, n = 18) and in calves 5-35 pM (mean 12 +/- 6 pM, n = 22) [43].


  1. A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes. Le Dur, A., Béringue, V., Andréoletti, O., Reine, F., Laï, T.L., Baron, T., Bratberg, B., Vilotte, J.L., Sarradin, P., Benestad, S.L., Laude, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men. Tholstrup, T., Raff, M., Basu, S., Nonboe, P., Sejrsen, K., Straarup, E.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Intake of conjugated linoleic acid, fat, and other fatty acids in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. Voorrips, L.E., Brants, H.A., Kardinaal, A.F., Hiddink, G.J., van den Brandt, P.A., Goldbohm, R.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Infusions of parathyroid hormone in ruminants: hypercalcemia and reduced plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Hove, K., Horst, R.L., Littledike, E.T., Beitz, D.C. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Interaction of ruminant transferrins with transferrin receptors in bovine isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica and Haemophilus somnus. Yu, R.H., Gray-Owen, S.D., Ogunnariwo, J., Schryvers, A.B. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Purification and properties of proline-rich antimicrobial peptides from sheep and goat leukocytes. Shamova, O., Brogden, K.A., Zhao, C., Nguyen, T., Kokryakov, V.N., Lehrer, R.I. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of intraventricular injections of gamma-aminobutyric acid and related substances on feeding behavior in satiated sheep. Seoane, J.R., Dumont, F., Girard, C.L., Bédard, L., Matte, J.J. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Nutritional value of meat: the influence of nutrition and physical activity on vitamin B12 concentrations in ruminant tissues. Ortigues-Marty, I., Micol, D., Prache, S., Dozias, D., Girard, C.L. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and the threat to humans from prion disease epizootics. Bosque, P.J. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Luteolysis: a neuroendocrine-mediated event. McCracken, J.A., Custer, E.E., Lamsa, J.C. Physiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Adaptive evolution in the stomach lysozymes of foregut fermenters. Stewart, C.B., Schilling, J.W., Wilson, A.C. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Alteration of the quality of milk by expression of sheep beta-lactoglobulin in transgenic mice. Simons, J.P., McClenaghan, M., Clark, A.J. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Evolution of urea synthesis in vertebrates: the piscine connection. Mommsen, T.P., Walsh, P.J. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Bovine gamma/delta T cells bind E-selectin via a novel glycoprotein receptor: first characterization of a lymphocyte/E-selectin interaction in an animal model. Walcheck, B., Watts, G., Jutila, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Oligosaccharides from placenta: early diagnosis of feline mannosidosis. Warren, C.D., Alroy, J., Bugge, B., Daniel, P.F., Raghavan, S.S., Kolodny, E.H., Lamar, J.J., Jeanloz, R.W. FEBS Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Studies of genetic relationships between bovine, caprine, cervine, and rangiferine alphaherpesviruses and improved molecular methods for virus detection and identification. Ros, C., Belák, S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. D-Lactic acidosis in children: an unusual metabolic complication of small bowel resection. Perlmutter, D.H., Boyle, J.T., Campos, J.M., Egler, J.M., Watkins, J.B. J. Pediatr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Involvement of free radicals in the mechanism of 3-methylindole-induced pulmonary toxicity: an example of metabolic activation in chemically induced lung disease. Bray, T.M., Kubow, S. Environ. Health Perspect. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Use of synthetic antigens improves detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies against abortigenic Chlamydia psittaci in ruminants. Kaltenboeck, B., Heard, D., DeGraves, F.J., Schmeer, N. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Multiple cDNA sequences and the evolution of bovine stomach lysozyme. Irwin, D.M., Wilson, A.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. A tandem gene duplication followed by recruitment of a retrotransposon created the paralogous bucentaur gene (bcntp97) in the ancestral ruminant. Iwashita, S., Ueno, S., Nakashima, K., Song, S.Y., Ohshima, K., Tanaka, K., Endo, H., Kimura, J., Kurohmaru, M., Fukuta, K., David, L., Osada, N. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Plasma lipid changes in young adult couples consuming polyunsaturated meats and dairy products. Hodges, R.E., Salel, A.F., Dunkley, W.L., Zelis, R., McDonagh, P.F., Clifford, C., Hobbs, R.K., Smith, L.M., Fan, A., Mason, D.T., Lykke, C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular phylogeny based on the kappa-casein and cytochrome b sequences in the mammalian suborder Ruminantia. Chikuni, K., Mori, Y., Tabata, T., Saito, M., Monma, M., Kosugiyama, M. J. Mol. Evol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Insensitivity of near-term fetal sheep to cortisol: possible relation to the control of parturition. Wood, C.E. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Crystal structure of bovine procarboxypeptidase A-S6 subunit III, a highly structured truncated zymogen E. Pignol, D., Gaboriaud, C., Michon, T., Kerfelec, B., Chapus, C., Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Urothelial function reconsidered: a role in urinary protein secretion. Deng, F.M., Ding, M., Lavker, R.M., Sun, T.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Interferon-tau and interferon-alpha interact with the same receptors in bovine endometrium. Use of a readily iodinatable form of recombinant interferon-tau for binding studies. Li, J., Roberts, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular characterization of the WC1 antigen expressed specifically on bovine CD4-CD8- gamma delta T lymphocytes. Wijngaard, P.L., Metzelaar, M.J., MacHugh, N.D., Morrison, W.I., Clevers, H.C. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. The three-dimensional structure of the native ternary complex of bovine pancreatic procarboxypeptidase A with proproteinase E and chymotrypsinogen C. Gomis-Rüth, F.X., Gómez, M., Bode, W., Huber, R., Avilés, F.X. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Nitrogen-stimulated orotic acid synthesis and nucleotide imbalance. Visek, W.J. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Ligand specificity of human surfactant protein D: expression of a mutant trimeric collectin that shows enhanced interactions with influenza A virus. Crouch, E., Tu, Y., Briner, D., McDonald, B., Smith, K., Holmskov, U., Hartshorn, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Conjugated linoleic acid metabolism. Banni, S. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. The interactions between copper, molybdenum, and sulphur in ruminant nutrition. Suttle, N.F. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Multiple internalization motifs differentially used by prolactin receptor isoforms mediate similar endocytic pathways. Lu, J.C., Scott, P., Strous, G.J., Schuler, L.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Evolution of TRG clusters in cattle and sheep genomes as drawn from the structural analysis of the ovine TRG2@ locus. Miccoli, M.C., Antonacci, R., Vaccarelli, G., Lanave, C., Massari, S., Cribiu, E.P., Ciccarese, S. J. Mol. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in luteolysis. Penny, L.A. Rev. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Growth hormone and prolactin--molecular and functional evolution. Forsyth, I.A., Wallis, M. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Existence of a bovine LINE repetitive insert that appears in the cDNA of bovine protein BCNT in ruminant, but not in human, genomes. Takahashi, I., Nobukuni, T., Ohmori, H., Kobayashi, M., Tanaka, S., Ohshima, K., Okada, N., Masui, T., Hashimoto, K., Iwashita, S. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. The public health significance of fat-modified ruminant foods. Heywood, P.F. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  40. Heterogeneity in the third intracytoplasmic region of the oxytocin receptor-encoding gene. Kaluz, S., Kaluzova, M., Flint, A.P. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  41. Porcine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins: new members of the aspartic proteinase gene family expressed in trophectoderm. Szafranska, B., Xie, S., Green, J., Roberts, R.M. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  42. An outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates, 1994-1995. Khan, A.S., Maupin, G.O., Rollin, P.E., Noor, A.M., Shurie, H.H., Shalabi, A.G., Wasef, S., Haddad, Y.M., Sadek, R., Ijaz, K., Peters, C.J., Ksiazek, T.G. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  43. Immunochemical characterisation of somatostatin in ruminants. Darvodelsky, A.M., Davey, M.W., Reid, A.M., Titchen, D.A., Wang, X. Regul. Pept. (1988) [Pubmed]
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