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Gene Review

VARS  -  valyl-tRNA synthetase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: G7A, Protein G7a, VARS1, VARS2, ValRS, ...
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Disease relevance of VARS


High impact information on VARS

  • As well, there was strong support for the monophyly (sensu Hennig) of Archaea. The valyl-tRNA synthetase gene from Tr. vaginalis clustered with other eukaryotic ValRS genes, which may have been transferred from the mitochondrial genome to the nuclear genome, suggesting that this amitochondrial trichomonad once harbored an endosymbiotic bacterium [3].
  • The results demonstrate that the NH2-terminal extension of valyl-tRNA synthetase is required for complex formation and that the enzyme-binding site(s) resides on the EF-1 delta subunit [4].
  • Reconstitution in vitro of the valyl-tRNA synthetase-elongation factor (EF) 1 beta gamma delta complex. Essential roles of the NH2-terminal extension of valyl-tRNA synthetase and of the EF-1 delta subunit in complex formation [4].
  • Our results are essentially in agreement with those from a recent report (Motorin, Y., Wolfson, A., Orlovsky, A., and Gladilin, K. (1988) FEBS Lett. 238, 262-264), according to which the polypeptides other than that assigned to valyl-tRNA synthetase correspond to the subunits of Elongation Factor 1H [5].
  • In addition to valyl-tRNA synthetase activity, which was assigned to the 140-kDa component, the purified complex exhibits a potent Elongation Factor 1 activity, determined by its ability to sustain poly(U)-dependent polyphenylalanine synthesis in the presence of Elongation Factor 2 [5].

Biological context of VARS


Anatomical context of VARS

  • The isolation of the valyl-tRNA synthetase mutant reported here brings to eight the number of different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutants isolated in the CHO cell line [11].

Associations of VARS with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of VARS


Other interactions of VARS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VARS


  1. Conserved glycine residues in the fusion peptide of the paramyxovirus fusion protein regulate activation of the native state. Russell, C.J., Jardetzky, T.S., Lamb, R.A. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Affinity chromatography of aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetases. Cognate transfer ribonucleic acid as a ligand. Clarke, C.M., Knowles, J.R. Biochem. J. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Root of the universal tree of life based on ancient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene duplications. Brown, J.R., Doolittle, W.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Reconstitution in vitro of the valyl-tRNA synthetase-elongation factor (EF) 1 beta gamma delta complex. Essential roles of the NH2-terminal extension of valyl-tRNA synthetase and of the EF-1 delta subunit in complex formation. Bec, G., Kerjan, P., Waller, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Valyl-tRNA synthetase from rabbit liver. I. Purification as a heterotypic complex in association with elongation factor 1. Bec, G., Kerjan, P., Zha, X.D., Waller, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Evidence that gene G7a in the human major histocompatibility complex encodes valyl-tRNA synthetase. Hsieh, S.L., Campbell, R.D. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Global effects of mistranslation from an editing defect in Mammalian cells. Nangle, L.A., Motta, C.M., Schimmel, P. Chem. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Valyl-tRNA synthetase form yellow lupin seeds: hydrolysis of the enzyme-bound noncognate aminoacyl adenylate as a possible mechanism of increasing specificity of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Jakubowski, H. Biochemistry (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Transiently misacylated tRNA is a primer for editing of misactivated adenylates by class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Nordin, B.E., Schimmel, P. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Floral homeotic gene expression defines developmental arrest stages in Brassica oleracea L. vars. botrytis and italica. Carr, S.M., Irish, V.F. Planta (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations in the structural genes of CHO cell histidyl-, valyl-, and leucyl-tRNA synthetases. Ashman, C.R. Somatic Cell Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. The mechanism of inhibition of valyl-tRNA synthetase by S-adenosylhomocysteine. Jakubowski, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Multiple phosphorylation sites and quaternary organization of guanine-nucleotide exchange complex of elongation factor-1 (EF-1betagammadelta/ValRS) control the various functions of EF-1alpha. Minella, O., Mulner-Lorillon, O., Bec, G., Cormier, P., Bellé, R. Biosci. Rep. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. The plant aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Effect of sodium chloride on tRNA aminoacylation and aminoacyl-tRNA decomposition catalysed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from yellow lupin seeds. Jakubowski, H., Pawelkiewicz, J. Acta Biochim. Pol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Isolation and some properties of enzyme-bound valyl adenylate and seryl adenylate. Jakubowski, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. A present-day aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with ancestral editing properties. Zhu, B., Zhao, M.W., Eriani, G., Wang, E.D. RNA (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. The plant aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Purification and characterization of valyl-tRNA, tryptophanyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetases from yellow-lupin seeds. Jukubowski, H., Pawelkiewicz, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Genomic structure and sequence analysis of the valyl-tRNA synthetase gene of the Japanese pufferfish, Fugu rubripes. Lim, E.H., Corrochano, L.M., Elgar, G., Brenner, S. DNA Seq. (1997) [Pubmed]
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