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Gene Review

LARS  -  leucyl-tRNA synthetase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FLJ10595, FLJ21788, HSPC192, ILFS1, KIAA1352, ...
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Disease relevance of LARS

  • Herein, human cytosolic leucyl-tRNA synthetase was heterologously expressed in a baculovirus system and purified to homogeneity [1].
  • Human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase with high activity produced from Escherichia coli [2].
  • In angiographically controlled trials such as LARS and L-CAPS, a reduction of progression of coronary lesions was observed; in favorable cases, regression of the stenoses could be documented [3].
  • In this review, Jes Olesen, Lars Thomsen and Helle Iversen suggest that migraine may be caused by increased amounts and/or affinity of an enzyme in the NO-triggered cascade of reactions [4].
  • The results presented here confirm the 1960 findings of Svennilson, et al., that parkinsonian tremor, rigidity, and hypokinesia can be effectively abolished by posteroventral pallidotomy, an approach developed in 1956 and 1957 by Lars Leksell [5].

Psychiatry related information on LARS


High impact information on LARS


Biological context of LARS


Anatomical context of LARS


Associations of LARS with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of LARS

  • INTRODUCTION: The Leipzig Allergy High-Risk Children Study (LARS) is a prospective nested cohort control study about the influence of chemical indoor exposure in dwellings on the health outcome of atopy-risk children during the first years of life [28].

Other interactions of LARS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LARS

  • Sequence analysis shows that this protein contains the characteristic motifs of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and regions of high homology to other mitochondrial and bacterial LeuRS proteins [31].
  • We used an ipsilateral bone-patellar-tendon-bone autograft in 27 patients and the Ligament Advancement Reinforcement System (LARS) artificial ligament in 26 [32].
  • LARS treatment for mandibular growth followed by open coiled springs for space gaining [33].
  • Three clinical trials are now being conducted to explore potential applications, including the LARS trial of excimer laser versus balloon angioplasty to treat in-stent restenosis, the PELA trial of excimer laser angioplasty in occluded superficial femoral artery disease, and the LACI trial of excimer laser angioplasty in limb-threatening ischaemia [34].
  • More than 100,000 patients throughout the world have undergone radiosurgery since Lars Leksell first described the technique in 1951 [35].


  1. The C-terminal appended domain of human cytosolic leucyl-tRNA synthetase is indispensable in its interaction with arginyl-tRNA synthetase in the multi-tRNA synthetase complex. Ling, C., Yao, Y.N., Zheng, Y.G., Wei, H., Wang, L., Wu, X.F., Wang, E.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase with high activity produced from Escherichia coli. Yao, Y.N., Wang, L., Wu, X.F., Wang, E.D. Protein Expr. Purif. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. State of the art of low-density lipoprotein apheresis in the year 2003. Bosch, T., Wendler, T. Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Nitric oxide is a key molecule in migraine and other vascular headaches. Olesen, J., Thomsen, L.L., Iversen, H. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Leksell's posteroventral pallidotomy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Laitinen, L.V., Bergenheim, A.T., Hariz, M.I. J. Neurosurg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Mitochondrial DNA 3243A>G mutation and increased expression of LARS2 gene in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Munakata, K., Iwamoto, K., Bundo, M., Kato, T. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. An evaluation of the effects of high-dose fexofenadine on the central nervous system: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers. Hindmarch, I., Shamsi, Z., Kimber, S. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. A naturalistic investigation of the effects of day-long consumption of tea, coffee and water on alertness, sleep onset and sleep quality. Hindmarch, I., Rigney, U., Stanley, N., Quinlan, P., Rycroft, J., Lane, J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmacodynamics of milnacipran in young and elderly volunteers. Hindmarch, I., Rigney, U., Stanley, N., Briley, M. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The psychopharmacological effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in normal healthy volunteers. Subhan, Z., Hindmarch, I. International journal of clinical pharmacology research. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. A physically altered leucyl-tRNA synthetase complex in a CHO cell mutant. Hampel, A.E., Ritter, P.O., Enger, M.D. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Reaction of anti-OJ autoantibodies with components of the multi-enzyme complex of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in addition to isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. Targoff, I.N., Trieu, E.P., Miller, F.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Interstitial cells of Cajal as targets for pharmacological intervention in gastrointestinal motor disorders. Huizinga, J.D., Thuneberg, L., Vanderwinden, J.M., Rumessen, J.J. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell line with increased system L amino acid transport activity. Lobaton, C.D., Moreno, A., Oxender, D.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Efficient procedure for transferring specific human genes into Chinese hamster cell mutants: interspecific transfer of the human genes encoding leucyl- and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetases. Cirullo, R.E., Dana, S., Wasmuth, J.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence that the mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthetase (LARS2) gene represents a novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene. 't Hart, L.M., Hansen, T., Rietveld, I., Dekker, J.M., Nijpels, G., Janssen, G.M., Arp, P.A., Uitterlinden, A.G., Jørgensen, T., Borch-Johnsen, K., Pols, H.A., Pedersen, O., van Duijn, C.M., Heine, R.J., Maassen, J.A. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Assignment of a human genetic locus to chromosome 5 which corrects the heat sensitive lesion associated with reduced leucyl-tRNA synthetase activity in ts025Cl Chinese hamster cells. Giles, R.E., Shimizu, N., Ruddle, F.H. Somatic Cell Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Enhanced in vivo IgE production and T cell polarization toward the type 2 phenotype in association with indoor exposure to VOC: results of the LARS study. Lehmann, I., Rehwagen, M., Diez, U., Seiffart, A., Rolle-Kampczyk, U., Richter, M., Wetzig, H., Borte, M., Herbarth, O. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Functional divergence of a unique c-terminal domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase to accommodate its splicing and aminoacylation roles. Hsu, J.L., Rho, S.B., Vannella, K.M., Martinis, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Selective linkage disruption in human-Chinese hamster cell hybrids: deletion mapping of the leuS, hexB, emtB, and chr genes on human chromosome 5. Dana, S., Wasmuth, J.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Experimental radiobiological investigations into radiosurgery: present understanding and future directions. Niranjan, A., Gobbel, G.T., Kondziolka, D., Flickinger, J.C., Lunsford, L.D. Neurosurgery (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. The mycotoxins citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin affect interferon-gamma rather than interleukin-4 production in human blood cells. Wichmann, G., Herbarth, O., Lehmann, I. Environ. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. The effects of single and repeated administration of ebastine on cognition and psychomotor performance in comparison to triprolidine and placebo in healthy volunteers. Hindmarch, n.u.l.l., Shamsi, Z. Current medical research and opinion. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. A reexamination of the leucine tRNAs and the leucyl-tRNA synthetase in developing Tenebrio molitor. Lassam, N.J., Lerer, H., White, B.N. Dev. Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular dissection of a critical specificity determinant within the amino acid editing domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase. Mursinna, R.S., Lee, K.W., Briggs, J.M., Martinis, S.A. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation and characterization of revertants of the mammalian temperature sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase mutant tsHl. Molnar, S.J., Thompson, L.H., Lofgren, D.J., Rauth, A.M. J. Cell. Physiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Personal memories of the history of stereotactic neurosurgery. Laitinen, L.V. Neurosurgery (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of indoor painting and smoking on airway symptoms in atopy risk children in the first year of life results of the LARS-study. Leipzig Allergy High-Risk Children Study. Diez, U., Kroessner, T., Rehwagen, M., Richter, M., Wetzig, H., Schulz, R., Borte, M., Metzner, G., Krumbiegel, P., Herbarth, O. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. A novel gene containing LIM domains (LIMD1) is located within the common eliminated region 1 (C3CER1) in 3p21.3. Kiss, H., Kedra, D., Yang, Y., Kost-Alimova, M., Kiss, C., O'Brien, K.P., Fransson, I., Klein, G., Imreh, S., Dumanski, J.P. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase gene maps close to leucyl-tRNA synthetase gene on human chromosome 5. Gerken, S.C., Wasmuth, J.J., Arfin, S.M. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression and characterization of the human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase. Bullard, J.M., Cai, Y.C., Spremulli, L.L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. A new generation of artificial ligaments in reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Two-year follow-up of a randomised trial. Nau, T., Lavoie, P., Duval, N. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. LARS treatment for mandibular growth followed by open coiled springs for space gaining. Williamson, E.H. Facial orthopedics and temporomandibular arthrology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Current multicentre studies with the excimer laser: design and aims. Tcheng, J.E., Volkert-Noethen, A.A. Lasers in medical science. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Radiosurgery: where we were, are, and may be in the third millennium. Niranjan, A., Lunsford, L.D. Neurosurgery (2000) [Pubmed]
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