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Gene Review

S100G  -  S100 calcium binding protein G

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CABP, CABP1, CABP9K, CALB3, Calbindin-D9k, ...
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High impact information on S100G


Biological context of S100G


Anatomical context of S100G

  • Calbindin-D9K gene expression in human myometrium during pregnancy and labor [10].
  • The data suggest that calbindin-D9k is required for mineral nucleation in the matrix vesicles of epiphyseal cartilage and bone [11].
  • Theoretical and experimental results for calbindin D9k, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and ubiquitin, three proteins with different distributions of N-H and C alpha-H alpha bond vectors, are used to illustrate the advantages of the simultaneous utilization of 13C alpha and 15N relaxation data [12].
  • In the pons, cabp(+) cells and neuropil could be seen in the medial and lateral pontine nuclei (pontine gray) [13].
  • The inferior colliculus had a relatively low density of cabp(+) cells [13].

Associations of S100G with chemical compounds

  • The 9,000 Mr calcium-binding protein calbindin-D9k (CaBP9k) is markedly induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] in mammalian intestine [14].
  • The human calbindin-D9k gene. Complete structure and implications on steroid hormone regulation [7].
  • The mRNA levels of renal 25-hydoxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (24OHase) increased, whereas those of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1-alpha hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase), duodenal transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6), TRPV5, and calbindin-D9k were all decreased [15].
  • Measurement and modelling of sequence-specific pKa values of lysine residues in calbindin D9k [16].
  • However, some EF-hand proteins, such as calbindin D9k (Clb), bind Ca(2+) without a significant change in conformation [17].

Other interactions of S100G

  • In addition, expression of CYP3A4 mRNA in a panel of duodenal samples was significantly correlated with the mRNA level of a known vitamin D receptor gene target, calbindin-D9K [18].
  • Moreover, the increase in CaT1 mRNA expression preceded by several hours the vitamin D induction of calbindin D9K, a putative cytosolic calcium transport protein [19].
  • This analysis was extended to a comprehensive comparison of the three-dimensional structures of the calcyclin monomer subunit and calbindin D9k, which revealed greater similarity in the packing of their hydrophobic cores than was anticipated previously [20].
  • CONCLUSION: In normal humans, 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol has a small but significant relationship to duodenal expression of calbindin-D9k, but not to PMCA1 expression [21].
  • ESI-MS showed that wild-type calbindin D9K binds two Ca2+ ions with similar affinities while the binding of two Cd2+ ions is sequential, as is the binding of the two Ca2+ or Cd2+ ions to the N56A mutant of calbindin [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of S100G


  1. Site-site communication in the EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein calbindin D9k. Mäler, L., Blankenship, J., Rance, M., Chazin, W.J. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Energy-based de novo protein folding by conformational space annealing and an off-lattice united-residue force field: application to the 10-55 fragment of staphylococcal protein A and to apo calbindin D9K. Lee, J., Liwo, A., Scheraga, H.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Proline isomerism leads to multiple folded conformations of calbindin D9k: direct evidence from two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy. Chazin, W.J., Kördel, J., Drakenberg, T., Thulin, E., Brodin, P., Grundström, T., Forsén, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Natural vitamin D3 response elements formed by inverted palindromes: polarity-directed ligand sensitivity of vitamin D3 receptor-retinoid X receptor heterodimer-mediated transactivation. Schräder, M., Nayeri, S., Kahlen, J.P., Müller, K.M., Carlberg, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Functional properties of calbindin D9K mutants with exchanged Ca2+ binding sites. Brodin, P., Johansson, C., Forsén, S., Drakenberg, T., Grundström, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Control of differentiation-induced calbindin-D9k gene expression in Caco-2 cells by cdx-2 and HNF-1alpha. Wang, L., Klopot, A., Freund, J.N., Dowling, L.N., Krasinski, S.D., Fleet, J.C. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. The human calbindin-D9k gene. Complete structure and implications on steroid hormone regulation. Jeung, E.B., Leung, P.C., Krisinger, J. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning of the full-length cDNA encoding the human calbindin-D9k. Jeung, E.B., Krisinger, J., Dann, J.L., Leung, P.C. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I, with or without 17 beta-estradiol, on bone and mineral homeostasis of aged ovariectomized rats. Verhaeghe, J., van Bree, R., Van Herck, E., Thomas, H., Skottner, A., Dequeker, J., Mosekilde, L., Einhorn, T.A., Bouillon, R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Calbindin-D9K gene expression in human myometrium during pregnancy and labor. Miller, E.K., Word, R.A., Goodall, C.A., Iacopino, A.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Calbindin-D9k. A vitamin-D-dependent, calcium-binding protein in mineralized tissues. Balmain, N. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Rotational diffusion anisotropy of proteins from simultaneous analysis of 15N and 13C alpha nuclear spin relaxation. Lee, L.K., Rance, M., Chazin, W.J., Palmer, A.G. J. Biomol. NMR (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Calbindin-like immunoreactivity in the central auditory system of the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnelli. Zettel, M.L., Carr, C.E., O'Neill, W.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Thyroid hormone receptor does not heterodimerize with the vitamin D receptor but represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation. Raval-Pandya, M., Freedman, L.P., Li, H., Christakos, S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Immobilization decreases duodenal calcium absorption through a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-dependent pathway. Sato, T., Yamamoto, H., Sawada, N., Nashiki, K., Tsuji, M., Nikawa, T., Arai, H., Morita, K., Taketani, Y., Takeda, E. J. Bone Miner. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Measurement and modelling of sequence-specific pKa values of lysine residues in calbindin D9k. Kesvatera, T., Jönsson, B., Thulin, E., Linse, S. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Long-range effects on calcium binding and conformational change in the N-domain of calmodulin. Ababou, A., Shenvi, R.A., Desjarlais, J.R. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 catalyze hydroxylation of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3): implications for drug-induced osteomalacia. Xu, Y., Hashizume, T., Shuhart, M.C., Davis, C.L., Nelson, W.L., Sakaki, T., Kalhorn, T.F., Watkins, P.B., Schuetz, E.G., Thummel, K.E. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 increases the expression of the CaT1 epithelial calcium channel in the Caco-2 human intestinal cell line. Wood, R.J., Tchack, L., Taparia, S. BMC Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. 1H NMR assignments of apo calcyclin and comparative structural analysis with calbindin D9k and S100 beta. Potts, B.C., Carlström, G., Okazaki, K., Hidaka, H., Chazin, W.J. Protein Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of genes involved in calcium absorption in human duodenum. Walters, J.R., Howard, A., Lowery, L.J., Mawer, E.B., Legon, S. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Determination of the metal-binding cooperativity of wild-type and mutant calbindin D9K by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Chazin, W., Veenstra, T.D. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of ion binding on the backbone dynamics of calbindin D9k determined by 15N NMR relaxation. Akke, M., Skelton, N.J., Kördel, J., Palmer, A.G., Chazin, W.J. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Dissection of calbindin D9k into two Ca(2+)-binding subdomains by a combination of mutagenesis and chemical cleavage. Finn, B.E., Kördel, J., Thulin, E., Sellers, P., Forsén, S. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
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