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Gene Review

S100g  -  S100 calcium binding protein G

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: 9 kDa CaBP, CABP, Cabp, Calb3, Calbindin-D9k, ...
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Disease relevance of S100g

  • Rats with short bowel syndrome had significantly lower mucosal concentrations of calbindin-D9K (P less than 0.001) and a parallel reduction of both intestinal calcium absorption (P less than 0.001) and p-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (P less than 0.01) in spite of a general hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa [1].
  • Vitamin D-deficient rats responded to dexamethasone treatment (100 micrograms/100 g of body weight/day for 4 days) with a 2.5-fold increase in intestinal VDR mRNA which was accompanied by a 4-fold decrease in intestinal calbindin-D9k mRNA [2].
  • A model of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in transgenic mice expressing the simian virus 40 T antigen driven by the rat Calbindin-D9K (CaBP9K) promoter [3].
  • Induction of hypertension in Dahl-S rats reduced intestinal calbindin-D9k and increased plasma levels of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, while renal calbindin-D28k levels, plasma calcium levels and plasma magnesium levels were unchanged [4].
  • Calcium absorption and gene expression of calbindin-D9k were decreased in uremia and were also improved by phosphorus restriction [5].

High impact information on S100g


Chemical compound and disease context of S100g


Biological context of S100g


Anatomical context of S100g


Associations of S100g with chemical compounds

  • The 9,000 Mr calcium-binding protein calbindin-D9k (CaBP9k) is markedly induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] in mammalian intestine [15].
  • It has been demonstrated in our previous studies that Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) is a potent biomarker for screening estrogen-like chemicals in the rat model [12].
  • The mRNA levels of renal 25-hydoxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (24OHase) increased, whereas those of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1-alpha hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase), duodenal transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6), TRPV5, and calbindin-D9k were all decreased [16].
  • Effect of 1,25,28-trihydroxyvitamin D2 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 on intestinal calbindin-D9K mRNA and protein: is there a correlation with intestinal calcium transport [17]?
  • Calcitriol increased total cell and brush border calbindin-D9K (P < .0001); this variation paralleled plasma calcitriol levels in both strains [18].

Regulatory relationships of S100g

  • Calcium transport by the Ca2(+)-pumping ATPase in rat duodenal basolateral-enriched membrane vesicles was stimulated by synthetic calbindin-D9k in a similar fashion to the purified natural protein [19].

Other interactions of S100g


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of S100g


  1. Intestinal and renal calcium-binding protein in rats with experimental short bowel syndrome. Staun, M., Egfjord, M., Fahrenkrug, L. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of hormones and development on the expression of the rat 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor gene. Comparison with calbindin gene expression. Huang, Y.C., Lee, S., Stolz, R., Gabrielides, C., Pansini-Porta, A., Bruns, M.E., Bruns, D.E., Miffin, T.E., Pike, J.W., Christakos, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. A model of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in transgenic mice expressing the simian virus 40 T antigen driven by the rat Calbindin-D9K (CaBP9K) promoter. Chailley-Heu, B., Rambaud, C., Barlier-Mur, A.M., Galateau-Salle, F., Perret, C., Capron, F., Lacaze-Masmonteil, T. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Calcium metabolic changes and calbindin-D in experimental hypertension. Hemmingsen, C., Staun, M., Lewin, E., Egfjord, M., Olgaard, K. J. Hypertens. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Phosphorus intake regulates intestinal function and polyamine metabolism in uremia. Imanishi, Y., Koyama, H., Inaba, M., Okuno, S., Nishizawa, Y., Morii, H., Otani, S. Kidney Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Gestational changes in calbindin-D9k in rat uterus, yolk sac, and placenta: implications for maternal-fetal calcium transport and uterine muscle function. Mathieu, C.L., Burnett, S.H., Mills, S.E., Overpeck, J.G., Bruns, D.E., Bruns, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Duodenal calcium binding protein and active calcium transport in rats: are they functionally related? Chabanis, S., Hanrotel, C., Duchambon, P., Banide, H., Kubrusly, M., Aymard, P., Lacour, B., Drüeke, T. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. A calcium binding protein, calbindin-D9k, is mainly regulated by estrogen in the pituitary gland of rats during estrous cycle. Nguyen, T.H., Lee, G.S., Ji, Y.K., Choi, K.C., Lee, C.K., Jeung, E.B. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein in rat uterus: differential effects of estrogen, tamoxifen, progesterone, and pregnancy on accumulation and cellular localization. Bruns, M.E., Overpeck, J.G., Smith, G.C., Hirsch, G.N., Mills, S.E., Bruns, D.E. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Solution structure of calcium-bound rat S100B(betabeta) as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,. Drohat, A.C., Baldisseri, D.M., Rustandi, R.R., Weber, D.J. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Differential expression of uterine calcium transporter 1 and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 1b during rat estrous cycle. Kim, H.J., Lee, G.S., Ji, Y.K., Choi, K.C., Jeung, E.B. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Estrogen receptor alpha pathway is involved in the regulation of Calbindin-D9k in the uterus of immature rats. Lee, G.S., Kim, H.J., Jung, Y.W., Choi, K.C., Jeung, E.B. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunoreactive calbindin-D9K localization in matrix vesicle-initiated calcification in rat epiphyseal cartilage: an immunoelectron microscope study. Balmain, N., Hotton, D., Cuisinier-Gleizes, P., Mathieu, H. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Calbindin-D9k and parvalbumin are exclusively located along basolateral membranes in rat distal nephron. Bindels, R.J., Timmermans, J.A., Hartog, A., Coers, W., van Os, C.H. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Thyroid hormone receptor does not heterodimerize with the vitamin D receptor but represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation. Raval-Pandya, M., Freedman, L.P., Li, H., Christakos, S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Immobilization decreases duodenal calcium absorption through a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-dependent pathway. Sato, T., Yamamoto, H., Sawada, N., Nashiki, K., Tsuji, M., Nikawa, T., Arai, H., Morita, K., Taketani, Y., Takeda, E. J. Bone Miner. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of 1,25,28-trihydroxyvitamin D2 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 on intestinal calbindin-D9K mRNA and protein: is there a correlation with intestinal calcium transport? Wang, Y.Z., Li, H., Bruns, M.E., Uskokovic, M., Truitt, G.A., Horst, R., Reinhardt, T., Christakos, S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. In vivo effect of calcitriol on calcium transport and calcium binding proteins in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Roullet, C.M., Roullet, J.B., Martin, A.S., McCarron, D.A. Hypertension (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Stimulation of intestinal basolateral membrane calcium-pump activity by recombinant synthetic calbindin-D9k and specific mutants. Walters, J.R., Howard, A., Charpin, M.V., Gniecko, K.C., Brodin, P., Thulin, E., Forsén, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of genistein as a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist on the expression of Calbindin-D9k in the uterus of immature rats. Lee, G.S., Choi, K.C., Kim, H.J., Jeung, E.B. Toxicol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The mechanism for the disparate actions of calcitriol and 22-oxacalcitriol in the intestine. Brown, A.J., Finch, J., Grieff, M., Ritter, C., Kubodera, N., Nishii, Y., Slatopolsky, E. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of vitamin D metabolites and analogs on renal and intestinal calbindin-D in the rat. Hemmingsen, C., Staun, M., Lewin, E., Nielsen, P.K., Olgaard, K. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Cell- and stage-specific expression of vitamin D receptor and calbindin genes in rat incisor: regulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Berdal, A., Hotton, D., Pike, J.W., Mathieu, H., Dupret, J.M. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Calbindin-D9k and calbindin-D28k expression in rat mineralized tissues in vivo. Berdal, A., Hotton, D., Saffar, J.L., Thomasset, M., Nanci, A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Decreased abundance of alkaline phosphatase and calbindin-D9K mRNAs in the intestine of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Leetun, D.T., Bruns, M.E., Bruns, D.E. Clin. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Stimulation of calbindin-D9K (CaBP9K) gene expression by calcium and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in fetal rat duodenal organ culture. Brehier, A., Thomasset, M. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
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