The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Isomerism


High impact information on Isomerism

  • Misexpression of Pitx2 on the right side of the embryo is sufficient to produce reversed heart looping and heart isomerisms, reversed body rotation, and reversed gut situs [6].
  • Unexpectedly, however, the most common feature of lefty-1-/- mice was thoracic left isomerism (rather than right isomerism) [7].
  • Many molecules can rotate freely around single bonds and thereby interconvert between different conformations, such as gauche and anti 1,2-disubstituted ethane, a classic example of conformational isomerism [8].
  • These observations led us to hypothesize that cis/trans isomerism at a single peptide bond between a proline and its preceding residue might be the origin of the conformational multiplicity [9].
  • Here, we show that a proportion of embryos lacking SPC4 develop situs ambiguus combined with left pulmonary isomerism or complex craniofacial malformations including cyclopia, or both [10].

Biological context of Isomerism


Anatomical context of Isomerism


Associations of Isomerism with chemical compounds

  • Rotational isomerism about the 17(20)-bond of steroids and euphoids as shown by the crystal structures of euphol and tirucallol [21].
  • Structural variations include: constitutional isomerism of the vinyl or carboxyethyl side chains, geometric isomerism of the methene bridges, tautomerism of the lactam groups, conformational rotations about the central methylene bridge and ionization of one or both carboxyl groups [22].
  • To probe a possible functional role of the Leu(12)-Pro(13) cis/trans isomerism, a Pro(13) --> Ala delta-conotoxin EVIA was synthesized and shown to exist only as a trans isomer [23].
  • Double bond isomerism could also be distinguished; oleic acid (18:1cis) induced a net disordering effect, whereas elaidic acid (18:1trans) produced no changes in GP [24].
  • The slow kinetic phase is evidently due to this effect of Fe(III) and not to the slow cis-trans isomerism of the peptide bond of proline residues as has been suggested [25].

Gene context of Isomerism

  • Cited2 is also required for normal establishment of the left-right axis; we demonstrate that abnormal heart looping and right atrial and pulmonary isomerism are consistent features of the left-right-patterning defect [26].
  • Targeted disruption of murine Cryptic results in L-R laterality defects including randomization of abdominal situs, hyposplenia, and pulmonary right isomerism, as well as randomized embryo turning and cardiac looping [27].
  • We show that mouse embryos lacking Shh display a variety of laterality defects, including pulmonary left isomerism, alterations of heart looping, and randomization of axial turning [28].
  • In addition, NMR data revealed that all of the proline residues undergo a cis/ trans isomerism to such an extent that approximately 40% of all Vpr molecules possess at least one proline in a cis conformation [3].
  • We have shown previously that mice deficient in the activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) exhibit right isomerism, which is characterized by mirror-image symmetrical right lungs, complex cardiac malformations, and hypoplasia of the spleen [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Isomerism


  1. Regulation of left-right patterning in mice by growth/differentiation factor-1. Rankin, C.T., Bunton, T., Lawler, A.M., Lee, S.J. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Left-isomerism sequence and maternal type-1 diabetes. Splitt, M., Wright, C., Sen, D., Goodship, J. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Structural characterization of the HIV-1 Vpr N terminus: evidence of cis/trans-proline isomerism. Bruns, K., Fossen, T., Wray, V., Henklein, P., Tessmer, U., Schubert, U. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Ventricular inversion with normal ventriculoarterial connection and left atrial isomerism: correction by the Mustard operation. Park, S.C., Siewers, R.D., Neches, W.H., Mathews, R.A., Fricker, F.J., Beerman, L.B., Fischer, D.R., Zuberbuhler, J.R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. The fenestrated Kawashima operation for single ventricle with interrupted inferior vena cava. Hannan, R.L., Rossi, A.F., Nykanen, D.G., Lopez, L., Alonso, F., White, J.A., Burke, R.P. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The transcription factor Pitx2 mediates situs-specific morphogenesis in response to left-right asymmetric signals. Logan, M., Pagán-Westphal, S.M., Smith, D.M., Paganessi, L., Tabin, C.J. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. lefty-1 is required for left-right determination as a regulator of lefty-2 and nodal. Meno, C., Shimono, A., Saijoh, Y., Yashiro, K., Mochida, K., Ohishi, S., Noji, S., Kondoh, H., Hamada, H. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Observation of conformation-specific pathways in the photodissociation of 1-iodopropane ions. Park, S.T., Kim, S.K., Kim, M.S. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Proline isomerism in staphylococcal nuclease characterized by NMR and site-directed mutagenesis. Evans, P.A., Dobson, C.M., Kautz, R.A., Hatfull, G., Fox, R.O. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. SPC4/PACE4 regulates a TGFbeta signaling network during axis formation. Constam, D.B., Robertson, E.J. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. ALK7, a receptor for nodal, is dispensable for embryogenesis and left-right patterning in the mouse. Jörnvall, H., Reissmann, E., Andersson, O., Mehrkash, M., Ibáñez, C.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Proline isomerism in the protein folding of ribonuclease A. Henkens, R.W., Gerber, A.D., Cooper, M.R., Herzog, W.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. MLC3F transgene expression in iv mutant mice reveals the importance of left-right signalling pathways for the acquisition of left and right atrial but not ventricular compartment identity. Franco, D., Kelly, R., Moorman, A.F., Lamers, W.H., Buckingham, M., Brown, N.A. Dev. Dyn. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Kinetics and mechanisms of thioamide rotational isomerism: N-thionaphthoyl-N-methyl glycine derivative. Lee, H.K., Querijero, G. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Synthesis and enzymatic degradation of optically active depsipeptide copolymers. Shirahama, H., Umemoto, K., Yasuda, H. Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Mouse Pitx2 deficiency leads to anomalies of the ventral body wall, heart, extra- and periocular mesoderm and right pulmonary isomerism. Kitamura, K., Miura, H., Miyagawa-Tomita, S., Yanazawa, M., Katoh-Fukui, Y., Suzuki, R., Ohuchi, H., Suehiro, A., Motegi, Y., Nakahara, Y., Kondo, S., Yokoyama, M. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Left ventricular structures in atrioventricular septal defect associated with isomerism of atrial appendages compared with similar features with usual atrial arrangement. Uemura, H., Anderson, R.H., Ho, S.Y., Devine, W.A., Neches, W.H., Smith, A., Yagihara, T., Kawashima, Y. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Influence of different dietary fats on triacylglycerol deposition in rat adipose tissue. Perona, J.S., Portillo, M.P., Teresa Macarulla, M., Tueros, A.I., Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V. Br. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Assessment of intracardiac anomalies in two adults with Ivemark's syndrome. Michelakis, N., Makaryus, A.N., Rosman, D., Kort, S. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. A case report of isolated levocardia without intracardiac anomalies associated with sick sinus syndrome. Fukuzawa, J., Haneda, T., Ishii, Y., Kawashima, E., Ogawa, Y., Matsuhashi, H., Kawamura, Y., Imamoto, T., Tobise, K., Onodera, S. Jpn. Circ. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Rotational isomerism about the 17(20)-bond of steroids and euphoids as shown by the crystal structures of euphol and tirucallol. Nes, W.D., Wong, R.Y., Benson, M., Landrey, J.R., Nes, W.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Bilirubin chemistry, ionization and solubilization by bile salts. Ostrow, J.D., Celic, L. Hepatology (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. NMR solution structures of delta-conotoxin EVIA from Conus ermineus that selectively acts on vertebrate neuronal Na+ channels. Volpon, L., Lamthanh, H., Barbier, J., Gilles, N., Molgó, J., Ménez, A., Lancelin, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Unique effects of different fatty acid species on the physical properties of the torpedo acetylcholine receptor membrane. Antollini, S.S., Barrantes, F.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Kinetic studies on the effect of the heme iron(III) on the protein folding of ferricytochrome c. Henkens, R.W., Turner, S.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Cited2 is required both for heart morphogenesis and establishment of the left-right axis in mouse development. Weninger, W.J., Floro, K.L., Bennett, M.B., Withington, S.L., Preis, J.I., Barbera, J.P., Mohun, T.J., Dunwoodie, S.L. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Conserved requirement for EGF-CFC genes in vertebrate left-right axis formation. Yan, Y.T., Gritsman, K., Ding, J., Burdine, R.D., Corrales, J.D., Price, S.M., Talbot, W.S., Schier, A.F., Shen, M.M. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Multiple left-right asymmetry defects in Shh(-/-) mutant mice unveil a convergence of the shh and retinoic acid pathways in the control of Lefty-1. Tsukui, T., Capdevila, J., Tamura, K., Ruiz-Lozano, P., Rodriguez-Esteban, C., Yonei-Tamura, S., Magallón, J., Chandraratna, R.A., Chien, K., Blumberg, B., Evans, R.M., Belmonte, J.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Gene-dosage-sensitive genetic interactions between inversus viscerum (iv), nodal, and activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) genes in asymmetrical patterning of the visceral organs along the left-right axis. Oh, S.P., Li, E. Dev. Dyn. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis using vertical vein for right isomerism, pulmonary atresia, and TAPVR. Okita, Y., Miki, S., Tamura, T., Kusuhara, K., Ueda, Y., Tahata, T., Yamanaka, K., Mitani, Y., Tamura, M. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Carboxy-terminal extension stabilizes the topological stereoisomers of guanylin. Schulz, A., Escher, S., Marx, U.C., Meyer, M., Rösch, P., Forssmann, W.G., Adermann, K. J. Pept. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Radionuclide angiography of azygos continuation of inferior vena cava in left atrial isomerism (polysplenia syndrome). Roguin, N., Lam, M., Frenkel, A., Front, D. Clinical nuclear medicine. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Clinical features, management, and outcome of children with fetal and postnatal diagnoses of isomerism syndromes. Lim, J.S., McCrindle, B.W., Smallhorn, J.F., Golding, F., Caldarone, C.A., Taketazu, M., Jaeggi, E.T. Circulation (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities