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Gene Review

PSCA  -  prostate stem cell antigen

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Prostate stem cell antigen, UNQ206/PRO232
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Disease relevance of PSCA


High impact information on PSCA

  • The prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA, named for its strong sequence homology to the thymocyte marker stem cell antigen 2) is a cell surface molecule associated with human and murine prostate cancer [2].
  • This transgenic system helps define the range of cellular changes associated with altered expression of PSCA, shows that transcriptional control is a major component regulating PSCA levels, and provides a useful tool to study subpopulations of prostate epithelial cells and factors that regulate the PSCA promoter [2].
  • To help define the regulation of this molecule, we created a transgenic mouse strain, which uses the human PSCA promoter region to control the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) [2].
  • Anti-PSCA mAbs inhibit tumor growth and metastasis formation and prolong the survival of mice bearing human prostate cancer xenografts [7].
  • In situ mRNA analysis localizes PSCA expression in normal prostate to the basal cell epithelium, the putative stem cell compartment of the prostate [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of PSCA


Biological context of PSCA


Anatomical context of PSCA


Associations of PSCA with chemical compounds

  • PSCA expression correlates with tumor stage, grade and androgen independence and may have prognostic utility [5].
  • RFB induced dose-dependent expression of PSCA protein, and activity of the psca promoter, in TRAMP C1 cells in culture [9].
  • Phorbol ester markedly stimulated PSCA gene expression in a cycloheximide- and actinomycin-inhibitable manner after a lag phase of 10 h, indicating that transcription of the PSCA gene is regulated by protein kinase C and a newly synthesized protein [15].
  • Increased psca promoter activity was also seen following treatment of cells with sulindac sulfone, another NSAID-like agent, but not with celecoxib treatment [9].

Other interactions of PSCA

  • CK-20 and PSCA expression was not observed in blood samples from healthy donors [16].
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of prostatic tissue from 11-18-month-old PTEN +/- mice showed elevated numbers of PSCA+ cells in the prostate, and immunohistochemical analysis showed high mPSCA expression in the tumors of these mice [17].
  • One of the latter peptides, encompassing amino acid residues 14-22, was capable of generating a PSCA-specific T-cell response in a human lymphocyte culture from a patient with metastatic CaP [18].
  • These results demonstrate that PSCA is co-overrepresented with MYC in a majority of cases, but may not be a necessary part of the 8q amplicon [19].
  • Expression of PSCA and mesothelin was observed in pancreatic nonductal neoplasms but their expression was seen less frequently (0-50%) and weaker than that in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (60-100%) [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PSCA


  1. Identification of an androgen-dependent enhancer within the prostate stem cell antigen gene. Jain, A., Lam, A., Vivanco, I., Carey, M.F., Reiter, R.E. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Growth, regeneration, and tumorigenesis of the prostate activates the PSCA promoter. Watabe, T., Lin, M., Ide, H., Donjacour, A.A., Cunha, G.R., Witte, O.N., Reiter, R.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Prostate stem cell antigen: a cell surface marker overexpressed in prostate cancer. Reiter, R.E., Gu, Z., Watabe, T., Thomas, G., Szigeti, K., Davis, E., Wahl, M., Nisitani, S., Yamashiro, J., Le Beau, M.M., Loda, M., Witte, O.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Prostate stem cell antigen is overexpressed in human transitional cell carcinoma. Amara, N., Palapattu, G.S., Schrage, M., Gu, Z., Thomas, G.V., Dorey, F., Said, J., Reiter, R.E. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) expression increases with high gleason score, advanced stage and bone metastasis in prostate cancer. Gu, Z., Thomas, G., Yamashiro, J., Shintaku, I.P., Dorey, F., Raitano, A., Witte, O.N., Said, J.W., Loda, M., Reiter, R.E. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Prostate stem cell antigen: a Jekyll and Hyde molecule? Saeki, N., Gu, J., Yoshida, T., Wu, X. Clin. Cancer Res. (2010) [Pubmed]
  7. Anti-PSCA mAbs inhibit tumor growth and metastasis formation and prolong the survival of mice bearing human prostate cancer xenografts. Saffran, D.C., Raitano, A.B., Hubert, R.S., Witte, O.N., Reiter, R.E., Jakobovits, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Anti-prostate stem cell antigen monoclonal antibody 1G8 induces cell death in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo via a Fc-independent mechanism. Gu, Z., Yamashiro, J., Kono, E., Reiter, R.E. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Gene expression profiling in R-flurbiprofen-treated prostate cancer: R-Flurbiprofen regulates prostate stem cell antigen through activation of AKT kinase. Zemskova, M., Wechter, W., Bashkirova, S., Chen, C.S., Reiter, R., Lilly, M.B. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Prostate stem cell antigen is a marker of late intermediate prostate epithelial cells. Tran, C.P., Lin, C., Yamashiro, J., Reiter, R.E. Mol. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Reduced expression of PSCA, a member of the LY-6 family of cell surface antigens, in bladder, esophagus, and stomach tumors. Bahrenberg, G., Brauers, A., Joost, H.G., Jakse, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Prostate stem cell antigen as therapy target: tissue expression and in vivo efficacy of an immunoconjugate. Ross, S., Spencer, S.D., Holcomb, I., Tan, C., Hongo, J., Devaux, B., Rangell, L., Keller, G.A., Schow, P., Steeves, R.M., Lutz, R.J., Frantz, G., Hillan, K., Peale, F., Tobin, P., Eberhard, D., Rubin, M.A., Lasky, L.A., Koeppen, H. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A novel human cancer culture model for the study of prostate cancer. Yasunaga, Y., Nakamura, K., Ko, D., Srivastava, S., Moul, J.W., Sesterhenn, I.A., McLeod, D.G., Rhim, J.S. Oncogene (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Prostate stem cell antigen is overexpressed in prostate cancer metastases. Lam, J.S., Yamashiro, J., Shintaku, I.P., Vessella, R.L., Jenkins, R.B., Horvath, S., Said, J.W., Reiter, R.E. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. PSCA expression is regulated by phorbol ester and cell adhesion in the bladder carcinoma cell line RT112. Bahrenberg, G., Brauers, A., Joost, H.G., Jakse, G. Cancer Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Detection of circulating tumor cells by cytokeratin 20 and prostate stem cell antigen RT-PCR in blood of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Lukyanchuk, V.V., Friess, H., Kleeff, J., Osinsky, S.P., Ayuni, E., Candinas, D., Roggo, A. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Alternative pathways to prostate carcinoma activate prostate stem cell antigen expression. Dubey, P., Wu, H., Reiter, R.E., Witte, O.N. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Prostate stem cell antigen is a promising candidate for immunotherapy of advanced prostate cancer. Dannull, J., Diener, P.A., Prikler, L., Fürstenberger, G., Cerny, T., Schmid, U., Ackermann, D.K., Groettrup, M. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Coamplification of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and MYC in locally advanced prostate cancer. Reiter, R.E., Sato, I., Thomas, G., Qian, J., Gu, Z., Watabe, T., Loda, M., Jenkins, R.B. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of novel markers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in pancreatic nonductal neoplasms: additional evidence of different genetic pathways. Cao, D., Maitra, A., Saavedra, J.A., Klimstra, D.S., Adsay, N.V., Hruban, R.H. Mod. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Complete androgen ablation suppresses prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) mRNA expression in human prostate carcinoma. Zhigang, Z., Wenlu, S. Prostate (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin augments the modulation of gene expression mediated by the thyroid hormone receptor. Yamada-Okabe, T., Aono, T., Sakai, H., Kashima, Y., Yamada-Okabe, H. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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