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Gene Review

nfo  -  endonuclease IV with intrinsic 3'-5'...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK2152, JW2146
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Disease relevance of nfo


High impact information on nfo


Chemical compound and disease context of nfo


Biological context of nfo

  • Inspection of the nucleotide sequence revealed no regions of potential secondary structure corresponding to a transcriptional terminator downstream from the structural gene; however, there was a potential open reading frame immediately downstream from the nfo structural gene [1].
  • To further investigate the roles of these AP endonucleases in DNA repair, we evaluated the sensitivity and mutagenesis of xthA and nfo strains after UVB and compared with UVC light [14].
  • The nfo strain displayed increased UVB-induced mutagenesis, which was significantly suppressed by pre-treatment with dipyridyl [14].
  • In vitro detection of endonuclease IV-specific DNA damage formed by bleomycin in vivo [11].
  • A strong chronic induction of the SOS response system occurs in E. coli BW535, a strain defective in nth, nfo and xth genes, and hence severely deficient in the repair of abasic sites in DNA [15].

Anatomical context of nfo


Associations of nfo with chemical compounds


Other interactions of nfo

  • In a soxR mutant, the expression of sodA, unlike that of nfo, was also regulated independently by oxygen tension [18].
  • A DNA polymerase I mutant (polA) was more sensitive than the xthA-nfo mutant [19].
  • We were unable to construct a uvrA xth nfo triple mutant [2].
  • The proteins induced included only five proteins that have been previously associated with stress responses, consisting of endonuclease IV (Nfo), three oxyR-regulated proteins, and one heat shock protein [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nfo


  1. Nucleotide sequence of the nfo gene of Escherichia coli K-12. Saporito, S.M., Cunningham, R.P. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of exonuclease III and endonuclease IV in repair of pyrimidine dimers initiated by bacteriophage T4 pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. Saporito, S.M., Gedenk, M., Cunningham, R.P. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Development of T7 phage and T7 phage containing apurinic sites in an exonuclease III, endonuclease IV double mutant of Escherichia coli. Sanchez, G., Mamet-Bratley, M.D. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. A versatile endonuclease IV from Thermus thermophilus has uracil-excising and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Back, J.H., Chung, J.H., Park, J.H., Han, Y.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Serratia marcescens rpr gene sensitizes Escherichia coli wild-type, xth, and nfo strains to methyl methanesulphonate. Murphy, K.E., Braymer, H.D. Mol. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure of the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease IV and its DNA complex: double-nucleotide flipping at abasic sites and three-metal-ion catalysis. Hosfield, D.J., Guan, Y., Haas, B.J., Cunningham, R.P., Tainer, J.A. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Uncoupling of the base excision and nucleotide incision repair pathways reveals their respective biological roles. Ishchenko, A.A., Deprez, E., Maksimenko, A., Brochon, J.C., Tauc, P., Saparbaev, M.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. An unusual mechanism for the major human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease involving 5' cleavage of DNA containing a benzene-derived exocyclic adduct in the absence of an AP site. Hang, B., Chenna, A., Fraenkel-Conrat, H., Singer, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Functional expression of Escherichia coli endonuclease IV in apurinic endonuclease-deficient yeast. Ramotar, D., Demple, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Endonuclease IV (nfo) mutant of Escherichia coli. Cunningham, R.P., Saporito, S.M., Spitzer, S.G., Weiss, B. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro detection of endonuclease IV-specific DNA damage formed by bleomycin in vivo. Levin, J.D., Demple, B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. The relative importance of Escherichia coli exonuclease III and endonuclease IV for the hydrolysis of 3'-phosphoglycolate ends in polydeoxynucleotides. Siwek, B., Bricteux-Grégoire, S., Bailly, V., Verly, W.G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. The multiple activities of Escherichia coli endonuclease IV and the extreme lability of 5'-terminal base-free deoxyribose 5-phosphates. Bailly, V., Verly, W.G. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Endonuclease IV and Exonuclease III are involved in the repair and mutagenesis of DNA lesions induced by UVB in Escherichia coli. Souza, L.L., Eduardo, I.R., Pádula, M., Leitão, A.C. Mutagenesis (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. E. coli BW535, a triple mutant for the DNA repair genes xth, nth, and nfo, chronically induces the SOS response. Janion, C., Sikora, A., Nowosielska, A., Grzesiuk, E. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing synthetic abasic sites. Model substrates for DNA polymerases and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases. Takeshita, M., Chang, C.N., Johnson, F., Will, S., Grollman, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Repair of DNA lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron chelators in Escherichia coli: participation of endonuclease IV and Fpg. Galhardo, R.S., Almeida, C.E., Leitão, A.C., Cabral-Neto, J.B. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. soxR, a locus governing a superoxide response regulon in Escherichia coli K-12. Tsaneva, I.R., Weiss, B. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Multiple pathways for repair of oxidative DNA damages caused by X rays and hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli. Zhang, Q.M., Yonei, S., Kato, M. Radiat. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Escherichia coli proteins inducible by oxidative stress mediated by the superoxide radical. Walkup, L.K., Kogoma, T. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is dependent upon radiation quality and the structural complexity of double-strand breaks. Pastwa, E., Neumann, R.D., Mezhevaya, K., Winters, T.A. Radiat. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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