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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Nasal Bone

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Disease relevance of Nasal Bone


High impact information on Nasal Bone

  • Clinically significant nasal bone osteophytosis may be another adverse reaction to oral isotretinoin therapy [1].
  • The methods tested are those described by: 1) Gerasimov ([1971] The Face Finder; London: Hutchinson & Co.), using the distal third of the nasal bones and the nasal spine; 2) Krogman ([1962] The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine; Springfield: Charles C [5].
  • To study the metabolism of the small proteoglycans decorin and biglycan under mineralizing conditions, osteoblasts from human nasal bone were cultured for several weeks in the presence or absence of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbate [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the second-trimester fetal biparietal diameter/nasal bone length (BPD/NBL) ratio and trisomy 21 [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no relationship between an absent fetal nasal bone and the levels of maternal serum PAPP-A or free beta-hCG in cases with trisomies 13, 18 or 21 [8].

Biological context of Nasal Bone


Anatomical context of Nasal Bone

  • Following maternal treatment with 0.4 mg/kg DON on the 11th gestational day, 23.1% of fetuses recovered at the 18th day exhibited median facial clefts, which were characterized by a separation in the midline of normal midfacial components, i.e., the premaxilla, nasal bones, and nasal capsule [10].
  • Nasal snorting of cocaine crystals causes destruction of the septal and nasal mucosa, which eventually provides exposure of the septal cartilage and nasal bones [11].
  • The homozygous Hyp mouse was not affected more severely than the heterozygous Hyp except in overall cranial length, nasal bone length, and mandibular length from mandibular foramen to third molar [12].
  • Coronal re-formations were performed in a plane perpendicular to the hard palate at the most anterior aspect of the nasal bones at the nasal dorsum [13].
  • Alizarin red S-stained and cleared skeletal preparations of these embryos revealed hypoplasia of the premaxilla, maxilla, nasal bone, zygoma, and mandible of the facial skeleton [14].

Associations of Nasal Bone with chemical compounds

  • However, the sinking of the hydroxyapatite graft in the nasal bone was significant at 3 weeks postoperatively and gradually increased thereafter [15].
  • RESULTS: In the transverse and coronal sections, a satisfactory image demonstrating presence of the nasal bone was achieved in only three and one, respectively, of the 20 volumes that we obtained [16].
  • The warfarin-treated rats developed a marked maxillonasal hypoplasia associated with a 11-13% reduction in the length of the nasal bones compared with controls [17].
  • From these radiographs, separate tracings were made on matte acetate paper of the left and right nasal bone regions including the radiopaque implants [18].
  • The grafts were then rigidly fixed, one to each nasal bone, using titanium lag screws [19].

Gene context of Nasal Bone

  • In the op/op mouse, the nasal bone and the premaxillary bone show remarkable deformity [20].
  • In contrast, only 5/20 cases where the 2D start section was at 25-90 degrees from the midline provided a satisfactory image demonstrating the nasal bone [16].
  • The biparietal diameter: nasal bone length ratio (BPD/NBL) was also calculated [21].
  • In the chromosomally abnormal group the nasal bone was absent in 161/242 (66.9%) with trisomy 21, in 48/84 (57.1%) with trisomy 18, in 7/22 (31.8%) with trisomy 13, in 3/34 (8.8%) with Turner syndrome and in 4/48 (8.3%) with other defects [22].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nasal bone length was significantly shorter in subjects with CL compared with subjects in whom the palate was clefted [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nasal Bone

  • To determine the effects of local bone turnover on the migration of macroporous hydroxyapatite onlays in the nasal bone and mandibular ramus, we performed histomorphometric analyses of the underlying bone area in 41 New Zealand White rabbits from the age of 4 weeks [15].
  • The forms of the nasal bone and the premaxillary bone were observed using roentgenography in both toothless op/op and normal (control) mice [20].


  1. Bilateral nasal bone osteophytosis associated with short-term oral isotretinoin therapy for cystic acne vulgaris. Novick, N.L., Lawson, W., Schwartz, I.S. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Missense mutation in the paired domain of PAX3 causes craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome. Asher, J.H., Sommer, A., Morell, R., Friedman, T.B. Hum. Mutat. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. First-trimester screening for trisomy-21 using a simplified method to assess the presence or absence of the fetal nasal bone. Orlandi, F., Rossi, C., Orlandi, E., Jakil, M.C., Hallahan, T.W., Macri, V.J., Krantz, D.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Is osteoid osteoma an iodophilic lesion?: pathologically proved osteoid osteoma of nasal bone first seen on whole-body iodine-131 scan. Rachinsky, I., Shelef, I., Agranovich, S., Lantsberg, S. Clinical nuclear medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Predicting nose projection and pronasale position in facial approximation: a test of published methods and proposal of new guidelines. Stephan, C.N., Henneberg, M., Sampson, W. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased turnover of small proteoglycans synthesized by human osteoblasts during cultivation with ascorbate and beta-glycerophosphate. Blumberg, P., Brenner, R., Budny, S., Kresse, H. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Second-trimester biparietal diameter/nasal bone length ratio is an independent predictor of trisomy 21. Tran, L.T., Carr, D.B., Mitsumori, L.M., Uhrich, S.B., Shields, L.E. Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13(+6) weeks in relation to the presence or absence of the fetal nasal bone on ultrasonography in chromosomally abnormal fetuses: an updated analysis of integrated ultrasound and biochemical screening. Cicero, S., Spencer, K., Avgidou, K., Faiola, S., Nicolaides, K.H. Prenat. Diagn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Integrated ultrasound and biochemical screening for trisomy 21 using fetal nuchal translucency, absent fetal nasal bone, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 to 14 weeks. Cicero, S., Bindra, R., Rembouskos, G., Spencer, K., Nicolaides, K.H. Prenat. Diagn. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Morphogenesis of median facial clefts in mice treated with diazo-oxo-norleucine (DON). Burk, D., Sadler, T.W. Teratology (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Reconstruction of the nose damaged by cocaine. Millard, D.R., Mejia, F.A. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Craniofacial abnormalities in mice with X-linked hypophosphatemic genes (Hyp or Gy). Shetty, N.S., Meyer, R.A. Teratology (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Computed tomography technique for evaluation of the nasal valve. Poetker, D.M., Rhee, J.S., Mocan, B.O., Michel, M.A. Archives of facial plastic surgery : official publication for the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc. and the International Federation of Facial Plastic Surgery Societies. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Exencephaly and axial skeletal dysmorphogenesis induced by maternal exposure to cadmium in the mouse. Padmanabhan, R., Hameed, M.S. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Migration of hydroxyapatite onlays into the mandible and nasal bone and local bone turnover in growing rabbits. Yanagisawa, A., Nakamura, T., Arakaki, M., Yano, H., Yamashita, S., Fujii, T. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Assessment of the fetal nasal bone at 11-14 weeks of gestation by three-dimensional ultrasound. Rembouskos, G., Cicero, S., Longo, D., Vandecruys, H., Nicolaides, K.H. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. The warfarin embryopathy: a rat model showing maxillonasal hypoplasia and other skeletal disturbances. Howe, A.M., Webster, W.S. Teratology (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Growth pattern of the rabbit nasal bone region. Sarnat, B.G., Selman, A.J. Rhinology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. The influence of bony architecture on fixed membranous bone graft survival. Goldstein, J.A., Mase, C.A., Newman, M.H. Annals of plastic surgery. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Facial skeletal growth in growing "toothless" osteopetrotic (op/op) mice: radiographic findings. Kawata, T., Tokimasa, C., Fujita, T., Ozawa, S., Sugiyama, H., Tanne, K. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Fetal nasal bone and trisomy 21 in the second trimester. Viora, E., Errante, G., Sciarrone, A., Bastonero, S., Masturzo, B., Martiny, G., Campogrande, M. Prenat. Diagn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Absent nasal bone at 11-14 weeks of gestation and chromosomal defects. Cicero, S., Longo, D., Rembouskos, G., Sacchini, C., Nicolaides, K.H. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Cross-sectional study of the length of the nasal bone in cleft lip and palate subjects. Nielsen, B.W., Mølsted, K., Skovgaard, L.T., Kjaer, I. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. (2005) [Pubmed]
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