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Gene Review

BGN  -  biglycan

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Biglycan, Bone/cartilage proteoglycan I, DSPG1, PG-S1, PGI, ...
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Disease relevance of BGN

  • Overexpression of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) in fibrosis and desmoplasia results from enhanced activity of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) [1].
  • In pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the tumor cells themselves may contribute to BGN synthesis in vivo, since 8 of 18 different pancreatic carcinoma cell lines constitutively expressed BGN mRNA, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR analysis [1].
  • A dysregulation in BGN expression occurs under several pathological conditions, including glomerulonephritis, mesothelioma, pancreatic cancer and a mouse model of osteoporosis [2].
  • We have initiated studies of structural and functional domains of biglycan by transient eukaryotic expression using the vaccinia virus/T7 bacteriophage expression system [3].
  • A recombinant vaccinia virus, vBGN4 encoding the mature biglycan core protein as a polyhistidine fusion protein under control of the T7 phage promoter was expressed in HT-1080 cells and UMR106 cells [3].

Psychiatry related information on BGN

  • ABG was associated with age, alcohol consumption and PGI/PGII<3 [4].
  • The subjects were also rated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale, the Superego Paranoia Depression Scale, the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, the PGI Locus of Control Scale and the Alienation Scale [5].
  • Neuropsychological parameters of general intelligence (Malin's modification of WISC test); attention and concentration (colour cancellation test); memory (modified PGI memory test) and visuomotor perception (Bender Gestalt test) were evaluated at least 6 months after CNS prophylaxis [6].

High impact information on BGN

  • Four markers at Xq28 were analyzed (DXS1113, BGN, Factor 8, and DXS1108) [7].
  • In this study, we identified Biglycan (Bgn), a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family, as a new extracellular modulator of BMP4 signaling [8].
  • We have investigated the expression patterns and subcellular localization in nervous tissue of glypican, a major glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is predominantly synthesized by neurons, and of biglycan, a small, leucine-rich chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan [9].
  • In certain regions, staining was selective, insofar as glypican and biglycan immunoreactivity in the nucleus was seen predominantly in a subpopulation of large spinal cord neurons [9].
  • By laser scanning confocal microscopy of rat central nervous tissue and C6 glioma cells, we found that a significant portion of the glypican and biglycan immunoreactivity colocalized with nuclear staining by propidium iodide and was also seen in isolated nuclei [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of BGN


Biological context of BGN


Anatomical context of BGN


Associations of BGN with chemical compounds

  • The steady state mRNA level of BGN was decreased by Dex in both HOB and BMSC cultures [21].
  • The relationship of biglycan to a number of other proteins containing the leucine-rich repeats is discussed with respect to homologies of cysteine regions immediately adjacent to the repeat sequences [24].
  • Approximately 70% of the recombinant biglycan secreted by HT-1080 cells was substituted with chondroitin sulfate chains, whereas about 50% of the biglycan expressed by UMR106 cells was substituted with chondroitin sulfate chains [3].
  • We investigated the effects of biglycan and decorin on the inhibition of alpha-thrombin by the serine proteinase inhibitor heparin cofactor II [20].
  • However, when the secondary structure of recombinant biglycan was disrupted by exposure to 4 M guanidine hydrochloride, the affinity for collagen type V was dramatically reduced [3].

Physical interactions of BGN

  • Biglycan core protein was shown to inhibit the extent of complexing of beta ig-h3 with native and pepsin-collagen VI suggesting that the glycosaminoglycan side chains of the proteoglycan were important for the formation of the large ternary complexes [25].
  • BACKGROUND: The small interstitial proteoglycans decorin and biglycan have been shown to interact with various extracellular matrix molecules and with transforming growth factor-beta [26].
  • Domains of apolipoprotein E involved in the binding to the protein core of biglycan of the vascular extracellular matrix: potential relationship between retention and anti-atherogenic properties of this apolipoprotein [27].
  • LPL had a slightly greater effect on increasing the binding of native and oxidized LDL to biglycan than versican [28].
  • Both types of adiponectin bound to biglycan in a dose-dependent manner [29].

Co-localisations of BGN


Regulatory relationships of BGN

  • Decorin production was inhibited by about 34% by all treatments, while biglycan was upregulated 1.3-fold by TNF-alpha [31].
  • Decorin was expressed later than biglycan, was associated with early matrix deposition, but then continued to the mineralisation stages [32].
  • IL-6 up-regulated biglycan expression, but less strongly than TGF-beta3 [33].
  • Decorin and biglycan were found not to inhibit the interaction of pepsin-treated type VI collagen with MAGP-1, indicating that its binding site on the collagen is not close to that for the proteoglycans [34].

Other interactions of BGN


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BGN


  1. Smad4/DPC4-dependent regulation of biglycan gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta in pancreatic tumor cells. Chen, W.B., Lenschow, W., Tiede, K., Fischer, J.W., Kalthoff, H., Ungefroren, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Biglycan is internalized via a chlorpromazine-sensitive route. Götte, M., Sofeu Feugaing, D.D., Kresse, H. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Eukaryotic expression of recombinant biglycan. Post-translational processing and the importance of secondary structure for biological activity. Hocking, A.M., Strugnell, R.A., Ramamurthy, P., McQuillan, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Association of serum pepsinogen with atrophic body gastritis in Costa Rica. Sierra, R., Une, C., Ramírez, V., González, M.I., Ramírez, J.A., de Mascarel, A., Barahona, R., Salas-Aguilar, R., Páez, R., Avendaño, G., Avalos, A., Broutet, N., Mégraud, F. Clin. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. A psychosocial study of 'self-immolation' in India. Singh, S.P., Santosh, P.J., Avasthi, A., Kulhara, P. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuropsychological abnormalities following CNS prophylaxis in children with acute lymphatic leukemia. Jain, Y., Choudhry, V.P., Arya, L.S., Mehta, M. Indian journal of pediatrics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Male homosexuality: absence of linkage to microsatellite markers at Xq28. Rice, G., Anderson, C., Risch, N., Ebers, G. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Biglycan is a new extracellular component of the Chordin-BMP4 signaling pathway. Moreno, M., Muñoz, R., Aroca, F., Labarca, M., Brandan, E., Larraín, J. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Glypican and biglycan in the nuclei of neurons and glioma cells: presence of functional nuclear localization signals and dynamic changes in glypican during the cell cycle. Liang, Y., Häring, M., Roughley, P.J., Margolis, R.K., Margolis, R.U. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Aberrant expressions of decorin and biglycan genes in the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome. Gu, J., Wada, Y. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Extracellular matrix glycoprotein biglycan enhances vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Shimizu-Hirota, R., Sasamura, H., Kuroda, M., Kobayashi, E., Hayashi, M., Saruta, T. Circ. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemical characterization and quantification of proteoglycans in human post-burn hypertrophic and mature scars. Scott, P.G., Dodd, C.M., Tredget, E.E., Ghahary, A., Rahemtulla, F. Clin. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Interleukin-1 mediates increased plasma levels of eicosanoids and cytokines in patients with sepsis syndrome. Slotman, G.J., Friedman, B., Brathwaite, C., Mure, A.J., Quinn, J.V., Shapiro, E. Shock (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Inseparable iduronic acid-containing proteoglycan PG(IdoA) preparations of human skin and post-burn scar tissues: evidence for elevated levels of PG(IdoA)-I in hypertrophic scar by N-terminal sequencing. Garg, H.G., Siebert, J.W., Garg, A., Neame, P.J. Carbohydr. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) type I receptor/ALK5-dependent activation of the GADD45beta gene mediates the induction of biglycan expression by TGF-beta. Ungefroren, H., Groth, S., Ruhnke, M., Kalthoff, H., Fändrich, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Localization of PGI (biglycan, BGN) and PGII (decorin, DCN, PG-40) genes on human chromosomes Xq13-qter and 12q, respectively. McBride, O.W., Fisher, L.W., Young, M.F. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the skin of aneuploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency. von Kaisenberg, C.S., Prols, F., Nicolaides, K.H., Maass, N., Meinhold-Heerlein, I., Brand-Saberi, B. Hum. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Adhesion and Rac1-dependent regulation of biglycan gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta. Evidence for oxidative signaling through NADPH oxidase. Groth, S., Schulze, M., Kalthoff, H., Fändrich, F., Ungefroren, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Small proteoglycans in human diabetic nephropathy: discrepancy between glomerular expression and protein accumulation of decorin, biglycan, lumican, and fibromodulin. Schaefer, L., Raslik, I., Grone, H.J., Schonherr, E., Macakova, K., Ugorcakova, J., Budny, S., Schaefer, R.M., Kresse, H. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Interaction of heparin cofactor II with biglycan and decorin. Whinna, H.C., Choi, H.U., Rosenberg, L.C., Church, F.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of glucocorticoid on the synthesis of biglycan and decorin in human osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells. Kimoto, S., Cheng, S.L., Zhang, S.F., Avioli, L.V. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of extracellular matrix molecules in human mesangial cells in response to prolonged hyperglycaemia. Wahab, N.A., Harper, K., Mason, R.M. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of decorin, biglycan, and collagen type I in human renal fibrosing disease. Stokes, M.B., Holler, S., Cui, Y., Hudkins, K.L., Eitner, F., Fogo, A., Alpers, C.E. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Human biglycan gene. Putative promoter, intron-exon junctions, and chromosomal localization. Fisher, L.W., Heegaard, A.M., Vetter, U., Vogel, W., Just, W., Termine, J.D., Young, M.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Beta ig-h3 interacts directly with biglycan and decorin, promotes collagen VI aggregation, and participates in ternary complexing with these macromolecules. Reinboth, B., Thomas, J., Hanssen, E., Gibson, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Differences in decorin and biglycan expression in patients with gastric ulcer healing. Schönherr, E., Lügering, N., Stoll, R., Domschke, W., Kresse, H. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Domains of apolipoprotein E involved in the binding to the protein core of biglycan of the vascular extracellular matrix: potential relationship between retention and anti-atherogenic properties of this apolipoprotein. Klezovitch, O., Scanu, A.M. Trends Cardiovasc. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Lipoprotein lipase enhances the binding of native and oxidized low density lipoproteins to versican and biglycan synthesized by cultured arterial smooth muscle cells. Olin, K.L., Potter-Perigo, S., Barrett, P.H., Wight, T.N., Chait, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Adiponectin inhibits the binding of low-density lipoprotein to biglycan, a vascular proteoglycan. Kobayashi, K., Inoguchi, T., Sonoda, N., Sekiguchi, N., Nawata, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Biglycan, decorin, and versican protein expression patterns in coronary arteriopathy of human cardiac allograft: distinctness as compared to native atherosclerosis. Lin, H., Wilson, J.E., Roberts, C.R., Horley, K.J., Winters, G.L., Costanzo, M.R., McManus, B.M. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Alteration of proteoglycan synthesis in human lung fibroblasts induced by interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Tufvesson, E., Westergren-Thorsson, G. J. Cell. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential roles for small leucine-rich proteoglycans in bone formation. Waddington, R.J., Roberts, H.C., Sugars, R.V., Schönherr, E. European cells & materials [electronic resource]. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Cross-talk between interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-beta3 regulates extracellular matrix production by human fibroblasts from subjects with non-syndromic cleft lip and palate. Baroni, T., Carinci, P., Bellucci, C., Lilli, C., Becchetti, E., Carinci, F., Stabellini, G., Pezzetti, F., Caramelli, E., Tognon, M., Bodo, M. J. Periodontol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1) binds to the pepsin-resistant domain of the alpha3(VI) chain of type VI collagen. Finnis, M.L., Gibson, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Differential regulation of extracellular matrix proteoglycan (PG) gene expression. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 up-regulates biglycan (PGI), and versican (large fibroblast PG) but down-regulates decorin (PGII) mRNA levels in human fibroblasts in culture. Kähäri, V.M., Larjava, H., Uitto, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Small proteoglycans of normal adult human kidney: distinct expression patterns of decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, and lumican. Schaefer, L., Gröne, H.J., Raslik, I., Robenek, H., Ugorcakova, J., Budny, S., Schaefer, R.M., Kresse, H. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Biglycan and decorin bind close to the n-terminal region of the collagen VI triple helix. Wiberg, C., Hedbom, E., Khairullina, A., Lamandé, S.R., Oldberg, A., Timpl, R., Mörgelin, M., Heinegård, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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