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Disease relevance of Maxilla


High impact information on Maxilla

  • Control mice exhibited expression of msx2 in developing brain, the developing limb buds and apical ectodermal ridge, the lateral and nasal processes, olfactory pit, palatal shelf of the maxilla, the eye, the lens of the eye, otic vesicle, prevertebral bodies (notochord), and endocardial cushion [6].
  • Heterozygous CBP-deficient mice, which had truncated CBP protein (residues 1-1084) containing the CREB-binding domain (residues 462-661), showed clinical features of RTS, such as growth retardation (100%), retarded osseous maturation (100%), hypoplastic maxilla with narrow palate (100%), cardiac anomalies (15%) and skeletal abnormalities (7%) [7].
  • Finally, biomechanical testing revealed no statistically significant difference in the maximal compressive strength of new bone formed by BMP-2 cell constructs and the normal maxilla [8].
  • Distal-less in the mandible and maxilla is expressed in the forming sensory organs and, thus, does not seem to be involved in PD axis patterning [9].
  • The dachshund gene is apparently involved both in PD patterning as well as in sensory organ development in the antenna, maxilla, and mandible [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Maxilla


Biological context of Maxilla


Anatomical context of Maxilla

  • In developing embryos, Fgf-8 was expressed in the neural fold, midbrain-hindbrain junction, tail and limb buds, pharyngeal clefts, and primordia of maxilla and mandible [20].
  • Our data showed that MSX-2 was strongly expressed in the progenitor cells of human orofacial skeletal structures, including mandible and maxilla bones, Meckel's cartilage, and tooth germs, as shown for DLX-5 [21].
  • BMP-2 was positive in osteoblasts and newly formed osteoid of the incisive and palatal bone of the maxilla and the mandible, which indicated that BMP-2 was exclusively involved in intramembranous ossification in the human fetal head [22].
  • The response of nerve fibres in the peri-implant epithelium to titanium implantation was investigated with an experimental model using rat maxilla and immunohistochemical techniques [23].
  • This first use of rhBMP-2/ACS in human clinical maxillary sinus floor augmentation included 12 patients with inadequate bone height in the posterior maxilla [24].

Associations of Maxilla with chemical compounds

  • Nine weeks later the animals were anaesthetized again and titanium implants were placed into the edentulous ridge of the maxilla and mandible [25].
  • Analysis of these data suggests that capsaicin-induced inflammatory reactions in gingivomucosal tissues do not cross the midline in the anterior maxilla [17].
  • The remodeling of bone during molar drifting and cortical growth in the rat maxilla and the effects of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP) on these processes were investigated in 30 age-matched rats [26].
  • The maxilla was fixed in paraformaldehyde and embedded undecalcified in methylmethacrylate [27].
  • Three separate bony ROIs were defined: C2 and C6 vertebral bodies and the palatine process of the maxilla [28].

Gene context of Maxilla

  • By the horizontal shelf stage, TSP-2 protein was principally localized to the ossification centres of the developing maxilla, both in extracellular matrix and bone; far less was seen in palatal shelves proper [29].
  • A case is reported of a normocalcaemic young adult female in whom multifocal recurrent giant cell osteolytic lesions in the maxilla and elsewhere were associated with a raised plasma level of parathyroid hormone-related peptide [30].
  • Additionally, ppGaNTase-T5 accumulates in a subset of mesenchymal cells at the ventral-most portions of the E12.5 maxilla and mandible underlying the dental lamina [31].
  • This is the first reported case of CD34 expressing AFS in the maxilla [32].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteoblastic cells derived from human maxilla were cultured with human PDGF [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Maxilla


  1. A gene for Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis maps to the long arm of chromosome 10. Preston, R.A., Post, J.C., Keats, B.J., Aston, C.E., Ferrell, R.E., Priest, J., Nouri, N., Losken, H.W., Morris, C.A., Hurtt, M.R. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates bone development and P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. Gyurko, R., Shoji, H., Battaglino, R.A., Boustany, G., Gibson, F.C., Genco, C.A., Stashenko, P., Van Dyke, T.E. Bone (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. A palatal dentigerous cyst arising from a mesiodente. Som, P.M., Shangold, L.M., Biller, H.F. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Apparent Ruvalcaba syndrome with genitourinary abnormalities. Bialer, M.G., Wilson, W.G., Kelly, T.E. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. High-dose radiation and the emergence of thyroid nodular disease. Rosen, I.B., Simpson, J.A., Sutcliffe, S., Gorenstein, L. Surgery (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Gestational exposure to ethanol suppresses msx2 expression in developing mouse embryos. Rifas, L., Towler, D.A., Avioli, L.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Truncated CBP protein leads to classical Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome phenotypes in mice: implications for a dominant-negative mechanism. Oike, Y., Hata, A., Mamiya, T., Kaname, T., Noda, Y., Suzuki, M., Yasue, H., Nabeshima, T., Araki, K., Yamamura, K. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Ex vivo gene therapy in autologous bone marrow stromal stem cells for tissue-engineered maxillofacial bone regeneration. Chang, S.C., Chuang, H.L., Chen, Y.R., Chen, J.K., Chung, H.Y., Lu, Y.L., Lin, H.Y., Tai, C.L., Lou, J. Gene Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The expression of the proximodistal axis patterning genes Distal-less and dachshund in the appendages of Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) suggests a special role of these genes in patterning the head appendages. Prpic, N.M., Tautz, D. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Incorporation of titanium mesh in orbital and midface reconstruction. Schubert, W., Gear, A.J., Lee, C., Hilger, P.A., Haus, E., Migliori, M.R., Mann, D.A., Benjamin, C.I. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of giant cell granuloma of the maxilla with intralesional injection of steroids. Khafif, A., Krempl, G., Medina, J.E. Head & neck. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Use of the bisphosphonate drug alendronate for palliative management of osteosarcoma in two dogs. Tomlin, J.L., Sturgeon, C., Pead, M.J., Muir, P. Vet. Rec. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Chewing movements in TMD patients and a control group before and after use of a stabilization splint. Soboleva, U., Jokstad, A., Eckersberg, T., Dahl, B.L. The International journal of prosthodontics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Ameloblastoma of the maxilla. Report of a case. Porter, J., Miller, R., Stratigos, G.T. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Bone mineral content of the maxilla estimated by dual-photon absorptiometry after augmentation with bone or hydroxyapatite. von Wowern, N., Worsaae, N. J. Dent. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of DLX5 during human embryonic craniofacial development. Davideau, J.L., Demri, P., Gu, T.T., Simmons, D., Nessman, C., Forest, N., MacDougall, M., Berdal, A. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Differences between tooth stimulation and capsaicin-induced neurogenic vasodilatation in human gingiva. Kemppainen, P., Avellan, N.L., Handwerker, H.O., Forster, C. J. Dent. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Distribution of scattered radiation during intraoral radiography with the patient in supine position. Kuroyanagi, K., Hayakawa, Y., Fujimori, H., Sugiyama, T. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Temperament and craniofacial variation in the first two years. Arcus, D., Kagan, J. Child development. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression patterns of Fgf-8 during development and limb regeneration of the axolotl. Han, M.J., An, J.Y., Kim, W.S. Dev. Dyn. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparative study of MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 gene expression during early human tooth development. Davideau, J.L., Demri, P., Hotton, D., Gu, T.T., MacDougall, M., Sharpe, P., Forest, N., Berdal, A. Pediatr. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. The immunohistochemical localization of Fas and Fas ligand in jaw bone and tooth germ of human fetuses. Hatakeyama, S., Tomichi, N., Ohara-Nemoto, Y., Satoh, M. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Regeneration of nerve fibres in the peri-implant epithelium incident to implantation in the rat maxilla as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Fujii, N., Ohnishi, H., Shirakura, M., Nomura, S., Ohshima, H., Maeda, T. Clinical oral implants research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. A feasibility study evaluating rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Boyne, P.J., Marx, R.E., Nevins, M., Triplett, G., Lazaro, E., Lilly, L.C., Alder, M., Nummikoski, P. The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of periodontal mechanoreceptors in evoking reflexes in the jaw-closing muscles of the cat. Bonte, B., Linden, R.W., Scott, B.J., van Steenberghe, D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Bisphosphonate effects on alveolar bone during rat molar drifting. Hardt, A.B. J. Dent. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Histomorphometric study of bone reactions during orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Verna, C., Zaffe, D., Siciliani, G. Bone (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Multiple regions-of-interest analysis of setup uncertainties for head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. Zhang, L., Garden, A.S., Lo, J., Ang, K.K., Ahamad, A., Morrison, W.H., Rosenthal, D.I., Chambers, M.S., Zhu, X.R., Mohan, R., Dong, L. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Thrombospondin-2 gene expression and protein localization during embryonic mouse palate development. Melnick, M., Chen, H., Zhou, Y., Jaskoll, T. Arch. Oral Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Multiple recurrent giant cell lesions associated with high circulating levels of parathyroid hormone-related peptide in a young adult. Davis, J.P., Archer, D.J., Fisher, C., Wimalawansa, S.J., Baldwin, D. The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Diverse spatial expression patterns of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase family member mRNAs during mouse development. Kingsley, P.D., Hagen, K.G., Maltby, K.M., Zara, J., Tabak, L.A. Glycobiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. CD34 expressing ameloblastic fibrosarcoma arising in the maxilla: a new finding. Lee, O.J., Kim, H.J., Lee, B.K., Cho, K.J. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. The association of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor tyrosine phosphorylation to mitogenic response of human osteoblastic cells in vitro. Nakanishi, H., Yamanouchi, K., Gotoh, Y., Nagayama, M. Oral diseases. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Esmolol is more effective than sodium nitroprusside in reducing blood loss during orthognathic surgery. Blau, W.S., Kafer, E.R., Anderson, J.A. Anesth. Analg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Implant-supported fixed prostheses in the edentulous maxilla. A 2-year clinical and radiological follow-up of treatment with non-submerged ITI implants. Bergkvist, G., Sahlholm, S., Nilner, K., Lindh, C. Clinical oral implants research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Immediate functional loading of edentulous maxilla: a 5-year retrospective study of 388 titanium implants. Degidi, M., Piattelli, A., Felice, P., Carinci, F. J. Periodontol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Dental health status and attitudes to dental care in families participating in a Danish fluoride tablet program. Friis-Hasché, E., Bergmann, J., Wenzel, A., Thylstrup, A., Pedersen, K.M., Petersen, P.E. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1984) [Pubmed]
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