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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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High impact information on Galago

  • Unlike the theta 1-globin genes of the rabbit and galago, the structure of these genes in the orangutan and baboon and their flanking regions show no apparent defects that would prevent their expression [1].
  • In orang-utan, but not in rabbit or galago, the theta 1-gene appears to be structurally intact, suggesting that it may be functional in this species [2].
  • Here, we demonstrate that the Galago monomer and type II SINE families are 68 and 62% homologous, respectively, with a human methionine tRNA gene [3].
  • The human gamma-globin gene and its orthologous galago gamma-globin gene evolved from an ancestral epsilon-globin gene [4].
  • In that experiment, human and galago gamma genes were linked to hypersensitive site 3 (HS3) of the locus control region [5].

Biological context of Galago


Anatomical context of Galago

  • The morphology of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) is described in coronal brain sections processed by Golgi- and Nissl-staining techniques [11].
  • The low level of ACHE in lamina 3 of the tree shrew's dLGN corresponds to the less activity of ACHE in the laminae 4 and 5 of Galago senegalensis (Fitzpatrick and Diamond, 1979), which like lamina 3 in Tupaia's dLGN project to layer I of the visual cortex (Carey et al., 1979) [12].
  • Effects of testosterone on the sternal cutaneous glands and genitalia of the male greater galago (Galago crassicaudatus crassicaudatus) [13].
  • The profiles of fiber types in hindlimb muscles from the tree shrew (Tupaia glis), lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis), and the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) were determined using histochemical techniques [14].

Associations of Galago with chemical compounds

  • The involucrin gene of the galago, a prosimian, has been cloned and sequenced [15].
  • MHC class II genes of the DRB family were partially sequenced from 10 individuals representing six species of prosimians: Galago senegalensis, G. moholi, Otolemur garnetti, Loris tardigradus, Petterus (Lemur) fulvus, and Lemur catta [16].
  • In Galago moholi, the CpG dinucleotides are conspicuously conserved, while in Eulemur coronatus a large proportion is changed, indicating that the G.moholi Alu is under purifying selection and might be transcribed [17].
  • The Galago type 2 family, which was reported to be derived from a methionine initiator tRNA, was also found to be similar to the lysine tRNA [18].
  • The five residues of the galago M/LWS pigment are Ala, His, Tyr, Ala, and Ala, respectively, and its peak absorption spectra (lambda(max)) was measured to be 539 nm, which is virtually identical to the expected value from the rule (538 nm), showing that the five-sites rule holds for this prosimian [19].

Gene context of Galago

  • Comparison of the HS5 sequences of mouse, human, and galago revealed two extensively conserved regions, designated HS5A and HS5B [20].
  • Employing comparative analysis of the cDNA-coding sequences of the unique preprorelaxin of the Afro-lorisiform Galago crassicaudatus and the Malagasy lemur Varecia variegata and the relaxin-like factor (RLF) of G. crassicaudatus, we demonstrated distinct differences in the dynamics of molecular remodeling of both hormones during primate evolution [21].
  • We present phylogenetic evidence from ORF1 sequences of slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) and galago (Galago crassicaudatus) that there were at least two distinct progenitors, active at the same time, in the ancestor of this family of prosimian primates [22].
  • Galago beta 1 and beta 2 chains differ from each other by only one amino acid residue [23].
  • The 5' and 3'-flanking regions of the human alpha 1 gene are orthologous to the corresponding region in galago, identifying the human alpha 2 gene as the more recently duplicated gene [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Galago


  1. Structure and expression of the human theta 1 globin gene. Hsu, S.L., Marks, J., Shaw, J.P., Tam, M., Higgs, D.R., Shen, C.C., Shen, C.K. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Evidence that the recently discovered theta 1-globin gene is functional in higher primates. Shaw, J.P., Marks, J., Shen, C.K. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Repeat sequence families derived from mammalian tRNA genes. Daniels, G.R., Deininger, P.L. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. The minimal promoter plays a major role in silencing of the galago gamma-globin gene in adult erythropoiesis. Li, Q., Fang, X., Han, H., Stamatoyannopoulos, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of fetal versus embryonic gamma globin genes: appropriate developmental stage expression patterns in the presence of HS2 of the locus control region. Yu, T., Thomas, D.M., Zhu, W., Goodman, M., Gumucio, D.L. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Can the product of the theta gene be a real globin? Clegg, J.B. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of a third major SINE family of repetitive sequences in the galago genome. Daniels, G.R., Deininger, P.L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. The beta globin gene cluster of the prosimian primate Galago crassicaudatus: nucleotide sequence determination of the 41-kb cluster and comparative sequence analyses. Tagle, D.A., Stanhope, M.J., Siemieniak, D.R., Benson, P., Goodman, M., Slightom, J.L. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. The phylogenetic history of New World monkey beta globin reveals a platyrrhine beta to delta gene conversion in the atelid ancestry. Prychitko, T., Johnson, R.M., Wildman, D.E., Gumucio, D., Goodman, M. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Cortical connections of MT in four species of primates: areal, modular, and retinotopic patterns. Krubitzer, L.A., Kaas, J.H. Vis. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Subclassification of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis): a quantitative Golgi study using principal components analysis. Pearson, J.C., Norris, J.R., Phelps, C.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of Tupaia glis: a Golgi, Nissl and acetylcholinesterase study. Brauer, K., Werner, L., Winkelmann, E., Lüth, H.J. Journal für Hirnforschung. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of testosterone on the sternal cutaneous glands and genitalia of the male greater galago (Galago crassicaudatus crassicaudatus). Dixson, A.F. Folia Primatol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparative histochemical study of prosimian primate hindlimb muscles. I. Muscle fiber types. Sickles, D.W., Pinkstaff, C.A. Am. J. Anat. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. The involucrin gene of the galago. Existence of a correction process acting on its segment of repeats. Phillips, M., Djian, P., Green, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. The origin of the primate Mhc-DRB genes and allelic lineages as deduced from the study of prosimians. Figueroa, F., O'hUigin, C., Tichy, H., Klein, J. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. An unusual primate locus that attracted two independent Alu insertions and facilitates their transcription. Ludwig, A., Rozhdestvensky, T.S., Kuryshev, V.Y., Schmitz, J., Brosius, J. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Transfer RNA-like structure of the human Alu family: implications of its generation mechanism and possible functions. Okada, N. J. Mol. Evol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Absorption spectra of reconstituted visual pigments of a nocturnal prosimian, Otolemur crassicaudatus. Kawamura, S., Kubotera, N. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Structural analysis and mapping of DNase I hypersensitivity of HS5 of the beta-globin locus control region. Li, Q., Zhang, M., Duan, Z., Stamatoyannopoulos, G. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular remodeling of members of the relaxin family during primate evolution. Klonisch, T., Froehlich, C., Tetens, F., Fischer, B., Hombach-Klonisch, S. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Multiple L1 progenitors in prosimian primates: phylogenetic evidence from ORF1 sequences. Stanhope, M.J., Tagle, D.A., Shivji, M.S., Hattori, M., Sakaki, Y., Slightom, J.L., Goodman, M. J. Mol. Evol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Concerted evolution led to high expression of a prosimian primate delta globin gene locus. Tagle, D.A., Slightom, J.L., Jones, R.T., Goodman, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Primate evolution of the alpha-globin gene cluster and its Alu-like repeats. Sawada, I., Schmid, C.W. J. Mol. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Banded chromosomes of Galago crassicaudatus monteiri, G. c. garnetti, and a subspecific hybrid. Poorman, P.A. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1982) [Pubmed]
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