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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Parenting

  • The increasing popularity of the use of IVF treatment in cases of male infertility is understandable in the light of men's investment in biological parenting and women's willingness to take on the physiological responsibility for treatment [1].
  • METHODS: A systematic review to explore the links between parenting, social factors and failure to thrive was carried out using 17 CD ROM and online databases using keywords in appropriate medical subject headings (MeSH terms) and Boolean operators refined for the studies [2].

Psychiatry related information on Parenting


High impact information on Parenting


Chemical compound and disease context of Parenting

  • To expand the cross-cultural scope of this research, here we investigate variation in salivary testosterone levels among Chinese men in relation to marital and parenting variables [13].
  • Infant salivary cortisol samples and standard observational procedures to measure infant temperament, sleep, attachment, and parenting were also used [14].
  • Hierarchical regression indicated cocaine (R2 = 0.034, p < 0.05) but not other drug use and instability in parenting (R2 = 0.137, p < 0.001) accounted for the observed differences [15].
  • We sampled a potent fish androgen, 11-ketotestosterone (KT), at different life history stages (experienced parenting males, experienced males not actively parenting, inexperienced males with their first clutch, and females), to examine this relationship [16].
  • Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form) [17].

Biological context of Parenting

  • Maternal adjustment, parenting and child behaviour in families of school-aged twins conceived after IVF and ovulation induction [18].
  • The interpersonal and environmental impact of poor parenting further compounds the effects of in utero exposure to methadone, placing these infants at high risk [19].
  • FINDINGS: The primary finding, presented as a hypothesis, suggests that an ADHD adolescent's sense of self is distorted and that the development of self has been disrupted due to the neurobiology of ADHD and environmental factors associated with the difficulties of parenting a difficult child, social role expectations, and modeling [20].

Gene context of Parenting

  • Mothers' Wave 2 psychological functioning was associated with involved-supportive parenting of the YS at Wave 3 [21].
  • Mothers' psychological functioning and child competence at Wave 2 forecast involved-supportive parenting at Wave 3, which was associated negatively with externalizing and internalizing problems at Wave 4 [22].
  • Negative perceived paternal parenting is associated with dopamine D2 receptor exon 8 and GABA(A) alpha 6 receptor variants: an explorative study [23].
  • In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers [24].
  • Mothers who viewed their family as "enmeshed" reported significantly higher sense of competence than those viewing the family as "connected" or "disengaged." CONCLUSION: The AKOS is an instrument that may help clinicians identify and address parents' concerns about treatment for ADHD as well as parents' perceptions about their parenting skills [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Parenting

  • Parents of children with CF experienced greater stress and burdens than parents of healthy children, yet parenting behavior and family functioning were quite similar in CF and healthy control groups [26].
  • CONCLUSION: Advance provision of emergency contraception in parenting teens increases the likelihood of its use, and does not affect the use of condoms, or hormonal methods of birth control [27].
  • The current paper integrates findings from a prospective longitudinal study that assessed the quality of parenting in families conceiving through IVF from an attachment theory perspective [28].
  • Low self-esteem in mothers, low parenting efficacy in fathers, and fathers' attributions of noncompliance to their ADHD child's insufficient effort and bad mood also were associated with worse child treatment outcome [5].


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  2. Salutogenesis as a framework for child protection: literature review. Taylor, J.S. Journal of advanced nursing. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Hormones and behavior in rhesus macaque abusive and nonabusive mothers. 2. Mother-infant interactions. Maestripieri, D., Megna, N.L. Physiol. Behav. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Negative parenting behavior, combat exposure, and PTSD symptom severity. Test of a person-event interaction model. McCranie, E.W., Hyer, L.A., Boudewyns, P.A., Woods, M.G. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  8. Development of an instrument to measure disability in parenting activity among women with rheumatoid arthritis. Katz, P.P., Pasch, L.A., Wong, B. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of pigeon cropmilk secretion and parental behaviors by prolactin. Horseman, N.D., Buntin, J.D. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Controlled clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy versus parenting education program for depressed pregnant women. Spinelli, M.G., Endicott, J. The American journal of psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Platelet serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor characteristics and parenting factors for boys at risk for delinquency: a preliminary report. Pine, D.S., Wasserman, G.A., Coplan, J., Fried, J.A., Huang, Y.Y., Kassir, S., Greenhill, L., Shaffer, D., Parsons, B. The American journal of psychiatry. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Aberrant parenting and delayed offspring development in rats exposed to lithium. Sechzer, J.A., Lieberman, K.W., Alexander, G.J., Weidman, D., Stokes, P.E. Biol. Psychiatry (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Fathers have lower salivary testosterone levels than unmarried men and married non-fathers in Beijing, China. Gray, P.B., Yang, C.F., Pope, H.G. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Maternal panic disorder: infant temperament, neurophysiology, and parenting behaviors. Warren, S.L., Gunnar, M.R., Kagan, J., Anders, T.F., Simmens, S.J., Rones, M., Wease, S., Aron, E., Dahl, R.E., Sroufe, L.A. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Attentional response at eight weeks in prenatally drug-exposed and preterm infants. Coles, C.D., Bard, K.A., Platzman, K.A., Lynch, M.E. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Elevated 11-ketotestosterone during paternal behavior in the Bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli). Rodgers, E.W., Earley, R.L., Grober, M.S. Hormones and behavior. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support. Hassall, R., Rose, J., McDonald, J. Journal of intellectual disability research : JIDR. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Maternal adjustment, parenting and child behaviour in families of school-aged twins conceived after IVF and ovulation induction. Tully, L.A., Moffitt, T.B., Caspi, A. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Methadone-maintained mothers: 3-year follow-up of parental functioning. Fiks, K.B., Johnson, H.L., Rosen, T.S. The International journal of the addictions. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Descriptions of self: an exploratory study of adolescents with ADHD. Krueger, M., Kendall, J. Journal of child and adolescent psychiatric nursing : official publication of the Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nurses, Inc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Longitudinal direct and indirect pathways linking older sibling competence to the development of younger sibling competence. Brody, G.H., Kim, S., Murry, V.M., Brown, A.C. Developmental psychology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Protective longitudinal paths linking child competence to behavioral problems among African American siblings. Brody, G.H., Kim, S., Murry, V.M., Brown, A.C. Child development. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Negative perceived paternal parenting is associated with dopamine D2 receptor exon 8 and GABA(A) alpha 6 receptor variants: an explorative study. Lucht, M., Barnow, S., Schroeder, W., Grabe, H.J., Finckh, U., John, U., Freyberger, H.J., Herrmann, F.H. Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. Thornberry, T.P., Freeman-Gallant, A., Lizotte, A.J., Krohn, M.D., Smith, C.A. Journal of abnormal child psychology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Assessing parents' willingness to pursue treatment for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rostain, A.L., Power, T.J., Atkins, M.S. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Family and parental functioning in cystic fibrosis. Ievers, C.E., Drotar, D. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Advance supply of emergency contraception: a randomized trial in adolescent mothers. Belzer, M., Sanchez, K., Olson, J., Jacobs, A.M., Tucker, D. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. A special path to parenthood: parent-child relationships in families giving birth to singleton infants through IVF. McMahon, C., Gibson, F. Reprod. Biomed. Online (2002) [Pubmed]
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