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Gene Review

WASF1  -  WAS protein family, member 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KIAA0269, Protein WAVE-1, SCAR1, Verprolin homology domain-containing protein 1, WASP family protein member 1, ...
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Disease relevance of WASF1

  • The overexpression of an Arp2/3 binding fragment of the Scar1 protein, shown previously to block actin-based motility of Listeria, had no effect on B. pseudomallei tail formation [1].
  • Expression of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family members WAS, WASF1, and the small GTP-binding protein RAC-1, which are involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization, was enhanced after MVA infection [2].
  • Back pain at wave 1 was not significantly associated with an increased risk for depression in the longitudinal analysis (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.5, 1.4) [3].
  • The ABRs already showed features which were characteristic for brain death (loss of components other than wave 1 or small wave 2) for four comatose recordings, in three of which N18 was preserved [4].
  • In the present study, a second wave of data were collected by randomly selecting a sample of participants from the wave 1 sample of 18,675 adults and readministering a telephone screening questionnaire designed to assess symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome [5].

Psychiatry related information on WASF1

  • These parenting practices indirectly forecast youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors 2 years later at Wave 5, through youth self-regulation at Wave 4 [6].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mammogram and clinical breast examination during the past year and performance of monthly breast self examination, with the screening rates in wave 2 directly standardized to the income and education distribution of wave 1 in each area [7].
  • The originally reported 1-year incidence estimates for obsessive-compulsive disorder primarily reflect data from subjects at wave 2 who reported the onset of symptoms as preceding the wave 1 interview [8].
  • METHODS: After an initial (wave 1) multistage assessment (1995 through 1997) to identify prevalent cases of dementia, we used similar methods 3 years later (wave 2) to identify 104 incident cases of AD among the 3308 survivors [9].
  • RESULTS: In logistic regression models, older children, children with a wave 1 DSM-III-R diagnosis, children with more total behavior problems and family conflict, and children receiving a pediatric referral were more likely to receive mental health services [10].

High impact information on WASF1

  • WASp/Scar family proteins are prominent cellular nucleation promoting factors [11].
  • The brain-stem conduction time of the auditory evoked response (Wave V-I interval) was longer in babies with apnea than in those without it at a similar postconceptional age (at 32 to 33 weeks: mean, 6.16 vs. 5.35 msec, P less than 0.001; at 34 to 35 weeks: mean, 5.98 vs. 5.33 msec, P less than 0.002) [12].
  • Mechanism of regulation of WAVE1-induced actin nucleation by Rac1 and Nck [13].
  • Direct observation of dendritic actin filament networks nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASP/Scar proteins [14].
  • DESIGN: Data were collected at 2 points using computer-assisted personal interview (wave 1 and wave 2 were separated by 1 year) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of WASF1

  • The Invader 1.0 assay (Invader HCV Genotyping Assay, version 1.0; Third Wave Technologies, Inc., Madison, WI) has been developed for the rapid differentiation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 to 6 based on sequence variation within the HCV 5' noncoding (NC) region [16].
  • Ritanserin significantly increased Slow Wave Sleep and changed the frequency and distribution of some stage transitions during the night [17].
  • Ketamine, an anesthetic agent primarily used in veterinary medicine and pediatrics, continues to gain in popularity in the drug abuse scene or 'Rave Wave' of all-night dance clubs [18].
  • METHODS: Scar volume was quantified using a validated three-dimensional speckle-pattern stereophotogrammetry before and for a minimum of 8 weeks after intralesional steroid therapy in 12 patients with keloid scars [19].

Biological context of WASF1

  • Rac signalling to actin -- a pathway that is thought to be mediated by the protein Scar/WAVE (WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein)-family verprolin homologous protein -- has a principal role in cell motility [13].
  • The opposite was true for WAVE1, and neither precipitated WAVE3, suggesting that WAVE isoforms have different affinities to these ligands, while the SH3 domain of abl binds to all 3 isoforms [20].
  • Changing the number of actin binding sites on a WASP family protein, either by removing a WH2 domain from N-WASP or by adding WH2 domains to Scar1, has no significant effect on nucleation activity [21].
  • While Scar/WAVE proteins are thought to be involved in lamellipodia protrusion, the hematopoietic WASP has been implicated in various actin-based processes such as chemotaxis, podosome formation, and phagocytosis [22].
  • WAVE1 was mapped on chromosome 6q21-22 [23].

Anatomical context of WASF1

  • Scar1 is a member of a new family of proteins related to WASP, and it may also have a role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton [24].
  • The induction of lamellipodia by platelet-derived growth factor was also suppressed by overexpression of the fragment of Scar1 that binds to the Arp2/3 complex [24].
  • In contrast to previously published results, neither WASp WA nor a similar region of the protein Scar1 significantly depolymerizes actin filaments under a variety of conditions [25].
  • To understand the roles of Scar1 and WASP in myeloid cells and their cytoskeletal control in haematopoietic tissues, we have explored their expression during differentiation of the promyeloid cell line HL-60 [26].
  • Expression of WASP and Scar1/WAVE1 actin-associated proteins is differentially modulated during differentiation of HL-60 cells [26].

Associations of WASF1 with chemical compounds

  • Undifferentiated HL-60 cells expressed Scar1 and WASP, and differentiation to neutrophils, induced by retinoic acid or non-retinoid agent treatments, led to a decrease in the level of expression of Scar1, whereas WASP expression was unaffected [26].
  • METHODS: A random sample of 416 women on methadone was assessed at baseline (wave 1) and at 6 months (wave 2), and 12 months (wave 3) following the initial assessment [27].
  • Smoking of crack cocaine increased from 11% in wave 1 to 60% in wave 2 and 67% in wave 3 ( p <.001) [28].
  • Probable clinical need was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. RESULTS: High levels of persistent unmet need for care (44 to 52 percent) were found among respondents who had probable clinical need in wave 1 [29].
  • Randomized trial of low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) versus unfractionated heparin for unstable coronary artery disease: one-year results of the ESSENCE Study. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q Wave Coronary Events [30].

Physical interactions of WASF1


Regulatory relationships of WASF1

  • Ectopically expressed WAVE2 and WAVE3 induced actin filament clusters in a similar manner with WAVE1 [23].
  • In many cases, actin assembly is initiated when proteins of the WASP/Scar family respond to signals from Rho family G proteins and stimulate the actin-nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex [21].

Other interactions of WASF1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of WASF1


  1. Actin-based motility of Burkholderia pseudomallei involves the Arp 2/3 complex, but not N-WASP and Ena/VASP proteins. Breitbach, K., Rottner, K., Klocke, S., Rohde, M., Jenzora, A., Wehland, J., Steinmetz, I. Cell. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Microarray analysis reveals characteristic changes of host cell gene expression in response to attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara infection of human HeLa cells. Guerra, S., López-Fernández, L.A., Conde, R., Pascual-Montano, A., Harshman, K., Esteban, M. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Depressive disorder as a long-term antecedent risk factor for incident back pain: a 13-year follow-up study from the Baltimore Epidemiological Catchment Area sample. Larson, S.L., Clark, M.R., Eaton, W.W. Psychological medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. N18 in median somatosensory evoked potentials: a new indicator of medullary function useful for the diagnosis of brain death. Sonoo, M., Tsai-Shozawa, Y., Aoki, M., Nakatani, T., Hatanaka, Y., Mochizuki, A., Sawada, M., Kobayashi, K., Shimizu, T. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Prognosis of chronic fatigue in a community-based sample. Taylor, R.R., Jason, L.A., Curie, C.J. Psychosomatic medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Longitudinal pathways to psychological adjustment among Black youth living in single-parent households. Kim, S., Brody, G.H. Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43). (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Breast cancer screening among women from 65 to 74 years of age in 1987-88 and 1991. NCI Breast Cancer Screening Consortium. Coleman, E.A., Feuer, E.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Stability of diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. Nelson, E., Rice, J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Antihypertensive medication use and incident Alzheimer disease: the Cache County Study. Khachaturian, A.S., Zandi, P.P., Lyketsos, C.G., Hayden, K.M., Skoog, I., Norton, M.C., Tschanz, J.T., Mayer, L.S., Welsh-Bohmer, K.A., Breitner, J.C. Arch. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Mental health service use among young children receiving pediatric primary care. Lavigne, J.V., Arend, R., Rosenbaum, D., Binns, H.J., Christoffel, K.K., Burns, A., Smith, A. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of actin filament network formation through ARP2/3 complex: activation by a diverse array of proteins. Higgs, H.N., Pollard, T.D. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Clinical apnea and brain-stem neural function in preterm infants. Henderson-Smart, D.J., Pettigrew, A.G., Campbell, D.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Mechanism of regulation of WAVE1-induced actin nucleation by Rac1 and Nck. Eden, S., Rohatgi, R., Podtelejnikov, A.V., Mann, M., Kirschner, M.W. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Direct observation of dendritic actin filament networks nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASP/Scar proteins. Blanchoin, L., Amann, K.J., Higgs, H.N., Marchand, J.B., Kaiser, D.A., Pollard, T.D. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Risk factors predicting changes in marijuana involvement in teenagers. van den Bree, M.B., Pickworth, W.B. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of the invader assay for genotyping hepatitis C virus. Germer, J.J., Majewski, D.W., Yung, B., Mitchell, P.S., Yao, J.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of ritanserin on sleep disturbances of dysthymic patients. Paiva, T., Arriaga, F., Wauquier, A., Lara, E., Largo, R., Leitao, J.N. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Urine concentrations of ketamine and norketamine following illegal consumption. Moore, K.A., Sklerov, J., Levine, B., Jacobs, A.J. Journal of analytical toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Objective assessment of keloid scars with three-dimensional imaging: quantifying response to intralesional steroid therapy. Ardehali, B., Nouraei, S.A., Van Dam, H., Dex, E., Wood, S., Nduka, C. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. WAVE/Scars in platelets. Oda, A., Miki, H., Wada, I., Yamaguchi, H., Yamazaki, D., Suetsugu, S., Nakajima, M., Nakayama, A., Okawa, K., Miyazaki, H., Matsuno, K., Ochs, H.D., Machesky, L.M., Fujita, H., Takenawa, T. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Different WASP family proteins stimulate different Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin-nucleating activities. Zalevsky, J., Lempert, L., Kranitz, H., Mullins, R.D. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2)-induced vesicle movement depends on N-WASP and involves Nck, WIP, and Grb2. Benesch, S., Lommel, S., Steffen, A., Stradal, T.E., Scaplehorn, N., Way, M., Wehland, J., Rottner, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of two human WAVE/SCAR homologues as general actin regulatory molecules which associate with the Arp2/3 complex. Suetsugu, S., Miki, H., Takenawa, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex. Machesky, L.M., Insall, R.H. Curr. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of the C terminus of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and the Arp2/3 complex on actin polymerization. Higgs, H.N., Blanchoin, L., Pollard, T.D. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of WASP and Scar1/WAVE1 actin-associated proteins is differentially modulated during differentiation of HL-60 cells. Launay, S., Brown, G., Machesky, L.M. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Relationship between drug abuse and intimate partner violence: a longitudinal study among women receiving methadone. El-Bassel, N., Gilbert, L., Wu, E., Go, H., Hill, J. American journal of public health. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Trends of HIV infection among injection drug users in Brazil in the 1990s: the impact of changes in patterns of drug use. Mesquita, F., Kral, A., Reingold, A., Bueno, R., Trigueiros, D., Araujo, P.J. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Longitudinal patterns of alcohol, drug, and mental health need and care in a national sample of U.S. adults. Stockdale, S.E., Klap, R., Belin, T.R., Zhang, L., Wells, K.B. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Randomized trial of low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) versus unfractionated heparin for unstable coronary artery disease: one-year results of the ESSENCE Study. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q Wave Coronary Events. Goodman, S.G., Cohen, M., Bigonzi, F., Gurfinkel, E.P., Radley, D.R., Le Iouer, V., Fromell, G.J., Demers, C., Turpie, A.G., Califf, R.M., Fox, K.A., Langer, A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Changes in the practice of percutaneous coronary intervention: a comparison of enrollment waves in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Dynamic Registry. Laskey, W.K., Williams, D.O., Vlachos, H.A., Cohen, H., Holmes, D.R., King, S.B., Kelsey, S.F., Slater, J., Faxon, D., Al-Bassam, M., Block, E., Detre, K.M. Am. J. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 complex. Marchand, J.B., Kaiser, D.A., Pollard, T.D., Higgs, H.N. Nat. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Vascular endothelial growth factor causes translocation of p47phox to membrane ruffles through WAVE1. Wu, R.F., Gu, Y., Xu, Y.C., Nwariaku, F.E., Terada, L.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Regulation of actin dynamics by WASP family proteins. Miki, H., Takenawa, T. J. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Motility determinants in WASP family proteins. Yarar, D., D'Alessio, J.A., Jeng, R.L., Welch, M.D. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression and subcellular localization of WAVE isoforms in the megakaryocyte/platelet lineage. Kashiwagi, H., Shiraga, M., Kato, H., Honda, S., Sako, M., Kurata, Y., Kanakura, Y., Tomiyama, Y. J. Thromb. Haemost. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Prevalence and predictors of headaches in US adolescents. Rhee, H. Headache. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Pathways to hysterectomy: insights from longitudinal twin research. Treloar, S.A., Martin, N.G., Dennerstein, L., Raphael, B., Heath, A.C. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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