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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Myotonia


High impact information on Myotonia


Chemical compound and disease context of Myotonia


Biological context of Myotonia


Anatomical context of Myotonia


Gene context of Myotonia

  • Autosomal dominant myotonia congenita is an inherited disorder of skeletal muscle caused by mutations in a voltage-gated Cl- channel gene (CLCN1, 7q35) [23].
  • PROMM: the expanding phenotype. A family with proximal myopathy, myotonia and deafness [24].
  • Genomic organization of the human muscle chloride channel CIC-1 and analysis of novel mutations leading to Becker-type myotonia [25].
  • The detection of the stop codon in the adrmto allele is further indication of the identity of the Clc-1 chloride channel with the adr myotonia gene in the mouse, because a chain termination close to the N terminus would necessarily destroy gene function [26].
  • Functional characterization is most advanced with ClC-0, ClC-1 (mutations which cause myotonia) and ClC-2, a swelling-activated chloride channel [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myotonia

  • Standardized protocols comprising short and long exercise tests were applied on 41 unaffected control subjects and on 51 case patients with chloride, sodium, or calcium channel mutations known to cause myotonia or periodic paralysis [28].
  • The major side effects were in the neuromuscular system and included severe muscle weakness, myopathy and/or myotonia by electromyography, and elevation of creatine phosphokinase and aldolase levels [29].
  • Isotonic tetanic contractions of the muscles treated with 2,4-D after more than 10 days of denervation revealed prolonged relaxation times similar to those of the intact side and characteristic of clinical myotonia [30].
  • Using intracellular microelectrodes, we studied the pathomechanism of myotonia experimentally induced in rabbits by HCR inhibitors, simvastatin, and pravastatin [31].
  • Correlative ECG, electrophysiologic (EPS), and pathologic findings of the conduction system (CS) in dystrophica myotonia has not been documented to our knowledge in the English literature [32].


  1. Temperature-sensitive mutations in the III-IV cytoplasmic loop region of the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene in paramyotonia congenita. McClatchey, A.I., Van den Bergh, P., Pericak-Vance, M.A., Raskind, W., Verellen, C., McKenna-Yasek, D., Rao, K., Haines, J.L., Bird, T., Brown, R.H. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. A chloride channel widely expressed in epithelial and non-epithelial cells. Thiemann, A., Gründer, S., Pusch, M., Jentsch, T.J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Myotonic dystrophy mutation: an unstable CTG repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the gene. Mahadevan, M., Tsilfidis, C., Sabourin, L., Shutler, G., Amemiya, C., Jansen, G., Neville, C., Narang, M., Barceló, J., O'Hoy, K. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations in dominant human myotonia congenita drastically alter the voltage dependence of the CIC-1 chloride channel. Pusch, M., Steinmeyer, K., Koch, M.C., Jentsch, T.J. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Confirmation of the type 2 myotonic dystrophy (CCTG)n expansion mutation in patients with proximal myotonic myopathy/proximal myotonic dystrophy of different European origins: a single shared haplotype indicates an ancestral founder effect. Bachinski, L.L., Udd, B., Meola, G., Sansone, V., Bassez, G., Eymard, B., Thornton, C.A., Moxley, R.T., Harper, P.S., Rogers, M.T., Jurkat-Rott, K., Lehmann-Horn, F., Wieser, T., Gamez, J., Navarro, C., Bottani, A., Kohler, A., Shriver, M.D., Sallinen, R., Wessman, M., Zhang, S., Wright, F.A., Krahe, R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Chemically induced myotonia in amphibia. Bretag, A.H., Dawe, S.R., Moskwa, A.G. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. The skeletal muscle chloride channel in dominant and recessive human myotonia. Koch, M.C., Steinmeyer, K., Lorenz, C., Ricker, K., Wolf, F., Otto, M., Zoll, B., Lehmann-Horn, F., Grzeschik, K.H., Jentsch, T.J. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Paradoxical effects of clofibrate on liver and muscle metabolism in rats. Induction of myotonia and alteration of fatty acid and glucose oxidation. Paul, H.S., Adibi, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Myotonia precipitated by propranolol therapy. Blessing, W., Walsh, J.C. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of acetazolamide on myotonia. Griggs, R.C., Moxley, R.T., Riggs, J.E., Engel, W.K. Ann. Neurol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. 20,25-diazacholesterol myotonia: an electrophysiological study. Furman, R.E., Barchi, R.L. Ann. Neurol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Successful treatment with tocainide of recessive generalized congenital myotonia. Streib, E.W. Ann. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The pathophysiology of myotonia produced by aromatic carboxylic acids. Furman, R.E., Barchi, R.L. Ann. Neurol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Severe myotonia relieved by nifedipine. Grant, R., Weir, A.I. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Novel muscle chloride channel mutations and their effects on heterozygous carriers. Mailänder, V., Heine, R., Deymeer, F., Lehmann-Horn, F. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Spectrum of mutations in the major human skeletal muscle chloride channel gene (CLCN1) leading to myotonia. Meyer-Kleine, C., Steinmeyer, K., Ricker, K., Jentsch, T.J., Koch, M.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Exploring the mammalian neuromuscular system by analysis of mutations: spinal muscular atrophy and myotonia. Jockusch, H., Kaupmann, K., Gronemeier, M., Schleef, M., Klocke, R. Prog. Neurobiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance in myotonia dystrophica. Tevaarwerk, G.J., Hudson, A.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular basis for decreased muscle chloride conductance in the myotonic goat. Beck, C.L., Fahlke, C., George, A.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Electron spin resonance studies of an animal model of human congenital myotonia: increased erythrocyte membrane fluidity in rats with 20,25-diazacholesterol-induced myotonia. Butterfield, D.A., Watson, W.E. J. Membr. Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Myotonic dystrophy: limited electromyographic abnormalities in 2 definite cases. Sun, S.F., Streib, E.W. Clin. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Myotonic muscular dystrophy associated with ritodrine tocolysis. Sholl, J.S., Hughey, M.J., Hirschmann, R.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. A mutation in autosomal dominant myotonia congenita affects pore properties of the muscle chloride channel. Fahlke, C., Beck, C.L., George, A.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. PROMM: the expanding phenotype. A family with proximal myopathy, myotonia and deafness. Phillips, M.F., Rogers, M.T., Barnetson, R., Braun, C., Harley, H.G., Myring, J., Stevens, D., Wiles, C.M., Harper, P.S. Neuromuscul. Disord. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Genomic organization of the human muscle chloride channel CIC-1 and analysis of novel mutations leading to Becker-type myotonia. Lorenz, C., Meyer-Kleine, C., Steinmeyer, K., Koch, M.C., Jentsch, T.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Nonsense and missense mutations in the muscular chloride channel gene Clc-1 of myotonic mice. Gronemeier, M., Condie, A., Prosser, J., Steinmeyer, K., Jentsch, T.J., Jockusch, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Properties of voltage-gated chloride channels of the ClC gene family. Jentsch, T.J., Günther, W., Pusch, M., Schwappach, B. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Electromyography guides toward subgroups of mutations in muscle channelopathies. Fournier, E., Arzel, M., Sternberg, D., Vicart, S., Laforet, P., Eymard, B., Willer, J.C., Tabti, N., Fontaine, B. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Phase II clinical trial of didemnin B in previously treated small cell lung cancer. Shin, D.M., Holoye, P.Y., Forman, A., Winn, R., Perez-Soler, R., Dakhil, S., Rosenthal, J., Raber, M.N., Hong, W.K. Investigational new drugs. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Experimental myotonia induced in denervated muscles by 2,4-D. Eberstein, A., Goodgold, J. Muscle Nerve (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Electrical myotonia of rabbit skeletal muscles by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Sonoda, Y., Gotow, T., Kuriyama, M., Nakahara, K., Arimura, K., Osame, M. Muscle Nerve (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Dystrophica myotonia. Correlative electrocardiographic, electrophysiologic, and conduction system study. Bharati, S., Bump, F.T., Bauernfeind, R., Lev, M. Chest (1984) [Pubmed]
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