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MeSH Review

Diet, Vegetarian

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Disease relevance of Diet, Vegetarian


Psychiatry related information on Diet, Vegetarian


High impact information on Diet, Vegetarian


Chemical compound and disease context of Diet, Vegetarian


Biological context of Diet, Vegetarian


Anatomical context of Diet, Vegetarian


Associations of Diet, Vegetarian with chemical compounds

  • Data indicated that a vegetarian diet modified androgen and estrogen metabolism in North American men and that a Western diet was associated with higher levels of urinary steroid hormones in young Black South African men [1].
  • The total androgen content decreased significantly in Black North American men on the vegetarian diet and increased in Black South African men fed a Western diet [1].
  • Normal subjects ingesting a protein diet had a significantly higher creatinine clearance than a comparable group of normal subjects ingesting a vegetarian diet [24].
  • Whereas phytates, polyphenolics, and other plant constituents found in vegetarian diets inhibit nonheme-iron absorption, vitamin C, citric acid, and other organic acids facilitate nonheme-iron absorption [25].
  • Reduced arachidonate in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters associated with vegetarian diets in humans [26].

Gene context of Diet, Vegetarian

  • One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5) [27].
  • In fact, recent epidemiology demonstrates a correlation between dietary glycemic load and serum CRP in women, and a recent clinical study reports a 28% reduction in serum CRP following adoption of a whole-food vegan diet rich in soluble fiber [28].
  • Thus this study implies that the relatively low BMI of vegetarians and vegans does cause small changes in SHBG and in post-menopausal oestradiol, but that the composition of vegetarian diets may not have any additional effects on these hormones [29].
  • CONCLUSION: According to the present study, the clearly different dietary patterns and nutrient intakes between the vegans and the omnivores resulted in similar extent and rate of 7-hydroxycoumarin formation, indicating only a minor effect on coumarin hydroxylase (CYP2A6) activity by the plant substances in the uncooked vegan diet [30].
  • Since whole-food vegan diets may downregulate systemic IGF-I activity, it is proposed that such a diet, in conjunction with fish oil supplementation and treatment with dopamine agonists capable of suppressing prolactin secretion, may have utility for treating and preventing autoimmune disorders [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Diet, Vegetarian

  • The second study was conducted in seven subjects, who consumed a low fat diet for 2 wk: the 1st wk was a vegetarian diet (no LCP) followed by a 2nd wk where the subjects were required to consume 500 g (raw weight) of kangaroo meat daily (305 mg/d AA, 325 mg/d n-3 LCP) [32].
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: The effect of a vegetarian diet and different omnivorous diets on the risk of uric acid crystallization was investigated [33].
  • After adjustment for age, body mass index, current smoking, supplement use and vegetarianism the mean plasma vitamin C levels were 38.8 (SE 1.6) mumol/l in white men, 36.5 (1.6) mumol/l in men of African descent and 32.9 (1.5) mumol/l in South Asian men (P = 0.033 by analysis of co-variance) [34].
  • In this study, 20 steroid-resistant, nephrotic patients were treated with a pure vegetarian, low-protein diet, supplemented with essential amino acids and ketoanalogues (supplemented vegan diet, SVD) for 4.6 +/- 3.1 months [35].
  • To clarify the role of the faecal flora in the diet-induced decrease of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity, 43 RA patients were randomized into two groups: the test group to receive living food, a form of uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacilli, and the control group to continue their ordinary omnivorous diets [36].


  1. Diet and urinary steroids in black and white North American men and black South African men. Hill, P., Wynder, E.L., Garbaczewski, L., Garnes, H., Walker, A.R. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Stabler, S.P., Allen, R.H. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores. Hung, C.J., Huang, P.C., Lu, S.C., Li, Y.H., Huang, H.B., Lin, B.F., Chang, S.J., Chou, H.F. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. A vegan diet free of gluten improves the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: the effects on arthritis correlate with a reduction in antibodies to food antigens. Hafström, I., Ringertz, B., Spångberg, A., von Zweigbergk, L., Brannemark, S., Nylander, I., Rönnelid, J., Laasonen, L., Klareskog, L. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The ingestion of inorganic nitrate increases gastric S-nitrosothiol levels and inhibits platelet function in humans. Richardson, G., Hicks, S.L., O'Byrne, S., Frost, M.T., Moore, K., Benjamin, N., McKnight, G.M. Nitric Oxide (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Lipid profiles of Yanomamo Indians of Brazil. Mancilha-Carvalho, J.J., Crews, D.E. Preventive medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages? Leitzmann, C. Forum of nutrition. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Diet, lipoproteins, and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. The Leiden Intervention Trial. Arntzenius, A.C., Kromhout, D., Barth, J.D., Reiber, J.H., Bruschke, A.V., Buis, B., van Gent, C.M., Kempen-Voogd, N., Strikwerda, S., van der Velde, E.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Indians: a case-control study. Pais, P., Pogue, J., Gerstein, H., Zachariah, E., Savitha, D., Jayprakash, S., Nayak, P.R., Yusuf, S. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of vegetarian diet on systemic lupus erythematosus. Shigemasa, C., Tanaka, T., Mashiba, H. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Controlled trial of fasting and one-year vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis. Kjeldsen-Kragh, J., Haugen, M., Borchgrevink, C.F., Laerum, E., Eek, M., Mowinkel, P., Hovi, K., Førre, O. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Protective effect of plant sterols against chemically induced colon tumors in rats. Raicht, R.F., Cohen, B.I., Fazzini, E.P., Sarwal, A.N., Takahashi, M. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Diet and sex-hormone binding globulin, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual symptoms. Barnard, N.D., Scialli, A.R., Hurlock, D., Bertron, P. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Toward improved management of NIDDM: A randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet. Nicholson, A.S., Sklar, M., Barnard, N.D., Gore, S., Sullivan, R., Browning, S. Preventive medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation. Geisel, J., Schorr, H., Bodis, M., Isber, S., Hübner, U., Knapp, J.P., Obeid, R., Herrmann, W. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Probiotic lactobacilli: an innovative tool to correct the malabsorption syndrome of vegetarians? Famularo, G., De Simone, C., Pandey, V., Sahu, A.R., Minisola, G. Med. Hypotheses (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Re: Vegetarianism and dental fluorosis among children in a high fluoride area of northern Tanzania (1999;9: 3-11). van Palenstein Helderman, W.H. International journal of paediatric dentistry / the British Paedodontic Society [and] the International Association of Dentistry for Children. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Content and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetarian diets. Gibson, R.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of vegetarian diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations during lactation. Specker, B.L., Tsang, R.C., Ho, M., Miller, D. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Diet and coronary heart disease. The National Heart Foundation of Australia. Shrapnel, W.S., Calvert, G.D., Nestel, P.J., Truswell, A.S. Med. J. Aust. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Diet and endocrine-related cancer. Hill, P., Chan, P., Cohen, L., Wynder, E., Kuno, K. Cancer (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of osteoporosis. Prentice, A. Public health nutrition. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Skeletal muscle total creatine content and creatine transporter gene expression in vegetarians prior to and following creatine supplementation. Watt, K.K., Garnham, A.P., Snow, R.J. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Renal functional reserve in humans. Effect of protein intake on glomerular filtration rate. Bosch, J.P., Saccaggi, A., Lauer, A., Ronco, C., Belledonne, M., Glabman, S. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Iron status of vegetarians. Craig, W.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Reduced arachidonate in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters associated with vegetarian diets in humans. Phinney, S.D., Odin, R.S., Johnson, S.B., Holman, R.T. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs. Cherian, G., Holsonbake, T.B., Goeger, M.P. Poult. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Low-insulin-response diets may decrease plasma C-reactive protein by influencing adipocyte function. McCarty, M.F. Med. Hypotheses (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal and post-menopausal meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Thomas, H.V., Davey, G.K., Key, T.J. Br. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Coumarin 7-hydroxylation in long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet. Rauma, A.L., Rautio, A., Pasanen, M., Pelkonen, O., Törrönen, R., Mykkänen, H. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Upregulation of lymphocyte apoptosis as a strategy for preventing and treating autoimmune disorders: a role for whole-food vegan diets, fish oil and dopamine agonists. McCarty, M.F. Med. Hypotheses (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Short-term diets rich in arachidonic acid influence plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and prostacyclin and thromboxane production in humans. Sinclair, A.J., Mann, N.J. J. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. The effect of a vegetarian and different omnivorous diets on urinary risk factors for uric acid stone formation. Siener, R., Hesse, A. European journal of nutrition. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Plasma vitamin C levels in men and women from different ethnic backgrounds living in England. Ness, A.R., Cappuccio, F.P., Atkinson, R.W., Khaw, K.T., Cook, D.G. International journal of epidemiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. A special, supplemented 'vegan' diet for nephrotic patients. Barsotti, G., Morelli, E., Cupisti, A., Bertoncini, P., Giovannetti, S. American journal of nephrology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Faecal microbial flora and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis during a vegan diet. Peltonen, R., Nenonen, M., Helve, T., Hänninen, O., Toivanen, P., Eerola, E. Br. J. Rheumatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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