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Disease relevance of Toothbrushing


Psychiatry related information on Toothbrushing


High impact information on Toothbrushing

  • In ultrafiltrates of saliva collected at the same time as the whole saliva, testosterone concentrations after toothbrushing were unchanged [8].
  • Animals rendered essentially free of detectable BP/P by a single scaling, 10 days of tetracycline therapy, and toothbrushing three times per week were immunized with P. intermedia 1447 or were sham immunized with phosphate-buffered saline [9].
  • Toothbrushing with a sodium fluoride-positive control dentifrice for two-week periods always produced positive remineralization of the lesions, and similar use of a placebo always produced mean mineral loss [10].
  • The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo fluoride accumulation in enamel and in enamel lesions from a single topical fluoride application and daily toothbrushing with a fluoride dentifrice [11].
  • Increase in the rate as a function of time after toothbrushing seemed to be due to the increase in population of bacteria which could reduce nitrite to NO [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Toothbrushing


Biological context of Toothbrushing


Anatomical context of Toothbrushing


Associations of Toothbrushing with chemical compounds

  • Fluoride content values increased by 25-30 micrograms/cm2 during a single topical application, as compared with 10-15 micrograms/cm2 during seven weeks of toothbrushing [11].
  • The cationic nature of the chlorhexidine molecule also means that the activity of the agent is rapidly reduced in the presence of anionic agents, specifically those found within certain types of toothpaste; thus care is required when using normal toothbrushing alongside chlorhexidine [23].
  • Triclosan (25% of the dose) and zinc (24%) were retained in the mouth immediately after toothbrushing and a single mouthrinse [24].
  • A 3-yr daily supervised toothbrushing study with a double blind design was conducted to evaluate the anticaries effectiveness of a 1.14% sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) dentifrice (1500 ppm F) compared to a 0.76% MFP dentifrice (1000 ppm F) [25].
  • Plaque was controlled using toothbrushing and topical applications of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate [26].

Gene context of Toothbrushing

  • This was related to four dexterity tests (Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test, Nine-hole Peg test, Box and Block test, Toothbrushing Ability test), a grip strength measure, and a cognitive measure (Allen Cognitive Level Test) [27].
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of self-performed supragingival plaque removal using either manual (Crest Complete) or power (Braun 3D Plaque Remover) toothbrushing on supra and subgingival plaque composition [28].
  • In Part 2, the efficacy of toothbrushing was studied after the students had received professional instruction [29].
  • The mean roughness (Ra) was measured with an optical sensor (FRT MicroProf) before and after toothbrushing [30].
  • No statistically significant difference in roughness was found before and after simulated toothbrushing for the Amalcap amalgam, Esthet-X resin composite, TPH Spectrum resin composite, d.SIGN ceramic and the experimental ceramic [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Toothbrushing


  1. Resolution of gingivitis in dogs following topical applications of 0.4% stannous fluoride and toothbrushing. Hock, J., Tinanoff, N. J. Dent. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel KIF21A mutation in a patient with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles and Marcus Gunn jaw-winking phenomenon. Yamada, K., Hunter, D.G., Andrews, C., Engle, E.C. Arch. Ophthalmol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The effects of a supervised toothbrushing programme on the caries increment of primary school children, initially aged 5-6 years. Jackson, R.J., Newman, H.N., Smart, G.J., Stokes, E., Hogan, J.I., Brown, C., Seres, J. Caries Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Fluoride in dental plaque after a single toothbrushing with monofluorophosphate dentifrice. Menteş, A.R., Oktay, C. Journal of Marmara University Dental Faculty. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. A systematic review of the effectiveness of health promotion aimed at improving oral health. Kay, E., Locker, D. Community dental health. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Factors influencing phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement. Majola, M.P., McFadyen, M.L., Connolly, C., Nair, Y.P., Govender, M., Laher, M.H. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Dental health and dental health behaviour in 8-year-old Finnish immigrant children in the north of Sweden. Ekman, A., Holm, A.K. Swedish dental journal. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Testosterone concentration is increased in whole saliva, but not in ultrafiltrate, after toothbrushing. Schramm, W., Smith, R.H., Craig, P.A., Grates, H.E. Clin. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Immune modulation of Prevotella intermedia colonization in squirrel monkeys. Clark, W.B., Magnusson, I., Beem, J.E., Jung, J.M., Marks, R.G., McArthur, W.P. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Findings from an in situ thin-section sandwich model for evaluating cariogenic and anti-cariogenic activity. Mellberg, J.R., Petrou, I.D., Grote, N.E. J. Dent. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Intra-oral retention of fluoride by bovine enamel from amine fluoride toothpaste and 0.4% amine fluoride liquid application. Ten Cate, J.M., Exterkate, R.A., Rempt, H.E. J. Dent. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Production of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen species in human oral cavity and their scavenging by salivary redox components. Takahama, U., Hirota, S., Oniki, T. Free Radic. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The reversal of localized experimental gingivitis. A comparison between mechanical toothbrushing procedures and a 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. Bosman, C.W., Powell, R.N. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of systemically-administered flurbiprofen as an adjunct to toothbrushing on the resolution of experimental gingivitis. Heasman, P.A., Seymour, R.A., Kelly, P.J. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Psychological mood of regular dental attenders in relation to oral hygiene behaviour and gingival health. Kurer, J.R., Watts, T.L., Weinman, J., Gower, D.B. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of dentifrices containing Triclosan on the development of gingivitis in a 21-day experimental gingivitis study. Saxton, C.A., Huntington, E., Cummins, D. International dental journal. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Oral use of chlorhexidine gluconate toothpaste in epileptic children. Russell, B.G., Bay, L.M. Scandinavian journal of dental research. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Economic evaluation of community programs for the prevention of dental caries in Catalonia, Spain. Manau, C., Cuenca, E., Martínez-Carretero, J., Salleras, L. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. The impact of universal access to dental care on disparities in caries experience in children. Ismail, A.I., Sohn, W. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of toothbrushing with a fluoride-free and fluoride-containing dentifrice on oral hygiene and number of leukocytes in the gingival fluid. Brayer, L., Antal, M., Sela, M., Gedalia, I., Stabholtz, A. J. Periodontol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of chlorhexidine and toothbrushing on the presence of bacteria on gingival and buccal epithelial cells. Vaahtoniemi, L.H., Räisänen, S., Stenfors, L.E. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Teaching received in caries prevention and perceived need for Best Practice Guidelines among recent graduates in Finland. Vehkalahti, M.M., Widström, E. European journal of dental education : official journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Chlorhexidine: is it still the gold standard? Jones, C.G. Periodontology 2000. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. The oral clearance of zinc and triclosan after delivery from a dentifrice. Gilbert, R.J. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. A 3-year clinical trial to compare efficacy of dentifrices containing 1.14% and 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate. Conti, A.J., Lotzkar, S., Daley, R., Cancro, L., Marks, R.G., McNeal, D.R. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Vascular morphology in noninflamed healed gingiva of dogs. Hock, J. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Dexterity testing as a predictor of oral care ability. Felder, R., James, K., Brown, C., Lemon, S., Reveal, M. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Efficacy of manual and powered toothbrushes (II). Effect on microbiological parameters. Haffajee, A.D., Smith, C., Torresyap, G., Thompson, M., Guerrero, D., Socransky, S.S. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of an oscillating/rotating electric toothbrush and a 'sonic' toothbrush in plaque-removing ability. A professional toothbrushing and supervised brushing study. Van der Weijden, G.A., Timmerman, M.F., Reijerse, E., Snoek, C.M., Van der Velden, U. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Surface roughness of different dental materials before and after simulated toothbrushing in vitro. Heintze, S.D., Forjanic, M. Operative dentistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. A study of a pre-brushing mouthrinse as an adjunct to oral hygiene. Hunter, L., Addy, M., Moran, J., Kohut, B., Hovliaras, C.A., Newcombe, R.G. J. Periodontol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison between mechanical cleaning and an antimicrobial rinse for the treatment and prevention of interdental gingivitis. Caton, J.G., Blieden, T.M., Lowenguth, R.A., Frantz, B.J., Wagener, C.J., Doblin, J.M., Stein, S.H., Proskin, H.M. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Oral self-care behaviours in older dentate adults. Payne, B.J., Locker, D. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of two sodium fluoride dentifrices on fluoride uptake and remineralization in situ. Mellberg, J.R., Petrou, I.D., Grote, N. American journal of dentistry. (1990) [Pubmed]
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