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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Mastication

  • The combined action of unilateral mastication and anabolic steroid use is probably responsible for the rapid development of unilateral masseteric hypertrophy [1].
  • Parafunctional habits (such as bruxism and clenching) are responsible for excessive occlusal wear, fractured teeth, tooth mobility, the periodontal lesion of trauma from occlusion, fractured restorations, myofascial pain involving the muscles of mastication, and painful TMJs [2].
  • It is suggested that the anterior teeth with greater connections to the Mes V and the ganglion may impart greater sensory perception and be involved in jaw reflexes to ensure a good occlusal relation during mastication, while the afferent connections of the molars may initiate complex jaw reflexes during the occlusal phase of mastication [3].

Psychiatry related information on Mastication


High impact information on Mastication

  • We have investigated the potential role of the homeobox-containing gene, Engrailed-2 (En-2), in the mouse, which is specifically expressed in myoblasts in the first arch and maintained in the muscles of mastication in the adult [5].
  • Nimesulide was more effective and more rapid than ketoprofen in ameliorating the painful inflammatory symptoms (pain at rest and upon mastication) and signs (swelling and hyperaemia) associated with the operation [6].
  • ES1 and ES2 elicited by an electrical stimulus of 20 mA lasting 0.2 msec were recorded during maximal voluntary contraction of the mastication muscles before and 30 min after medication [7].
  • Abnormalities of the rate of food consumption, mastication, bolus transfer, respiration, and swallow initiation seem to be responsible for most dysphagic symptoms in HD [8].
  • The number of Fos protein-LI cells was decreased in the rats with hard food mastication followed by soft food [9].

Biological context of Mastication


Anatomical context of Mastication

  • We propose that the incisal masses arose because the pulpal mesenchyme continued to grow and its secretion product, dentine, continued to be deposited (during periods of vitamin A sufficiency) in an ectopic site where functional attrition from mastication could not occur [13].
  • Stage I transport, transport through the oral cavity prior to mastication, has been described for several mammals (Franks et al.: Arch. Oral Biol. 30:539, 1985; Hiiemae and Crompton: Hildebrand et al. (eds.): Functional Vertebrate Morphology, Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press, 1985) [14].
  • Previous studies have localized a central pattern generator for mastication to the midline pontomedullary reticular formation (RF) based on cortically induced ororhythmic movements [15].
  • To examine the effects of BDNF on mastication, jaw movement trajectories and masticatory muscle activities were electrophysiologically investigated in BDNF-deficient mice, compared with those of littermate wild-type mice [16].
  • The conceptual theories outlined in this review include biomedical models related to temporomandibular joints, muscles of mastication and occlusal factors, psychological models and the biopsychosocial models [17].

Associations of Mastication with chemical compounds

  • Experimental studies indicate that the effects of occlusal forces during mastication are quite apparent in alveolar bone, although relatively large strains are also observed in regions well-removed from a loaded alveolus [18].
  • Oral exposure to dietary fat (through modified sham feeding, which entails mastication and expectoration of foods) augments the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, in part, though augmented lipid absorption [19].
  • 1. Mastication was produced by stimulation of the right motor-sensory cortex of urethan-anesthetized rabbits with 15-s trains of shocks (1-ms duration) at 50 Hz [20].
  • Injections of NMDA excited local neurons and when injected into ventral nPontc, it completely blocked mastication [21].
  • Injections of local anesthetic (prilocaine hydrochloride, 4%) into the receptive field of the neuron did not prevent the decrease in excitability during mastication [22].

Gene context of Mastication

  • It is conceivable that the high expression of S100A4 in PDLE is a result of the maturation of the PDL and/or a response to mechanical stress generated by mastication [23].
  • To evaluate the effect of rhBMP-2 in aging individuals, a group of six Macaca animals over 20 years of age received the same type of mandibular resection followed by BMP grafting with functional stimulation by mastication on root form implants placed at 5 months after BMP implantation [24].
  • The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pattern generator of mastication [16].
  • Since the PDL is continually subjected to mechanical forces from such orofacial functions as mastication, biting, speech and swallowing, the mechanical stimuli is thought to be associated with the expression of RGD-CAP [25].
  • Furthermore, the op/op mouse has been studied as a "toothless" mouse in recent morphological and physiological investigations of the relationship between mastication and masseter muscle development [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mastication

  • The purpose of this study was to observe the incidence of occlusal contact with complete dentures during mastication using a 6-channel telemetry system whose accuracy had been improved [27].
  • Masticatory function was assessed in terms of the number of teeth present, maximum bite force, occlusal contact area, and mastication score [28].
  • New occlusal surfaces were in most cases used for mastication after a short period of adaptation after rehabilitation [29].
  • The maximal occlusal force or mastication efficiency index of those having fixed implant-supported prostheses in both arches did not differ markedly from those having only a mandibular restoration [30].
  • The appliance offers a similar degree of comfort and aesthetic appeal to that of a fixed bridge, but is specifically designed to reduce the high occlusal loads that normally are applied to the abutment teeth during mastication [31].


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  2. Malocclusion. Denbo, J.A. Dent. Clin. North Am. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Quantitative and somatotopic mapping of neurones in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus and ganglion innervating teeth in monkey and baboon. Hassanali, J. Arch. Oral Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. A very-low-calorie conventional Japanese diet: its implications for prevention of obesity. Sakata, T. Obes. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. A role for Engrailed-2 in determination of skeletal muscle physiologic properties. Degenhardt, K., Sassoon, D.A. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. A double-blind comparison of nimesulide and ketoprofen in dental surgery. Pierleoni, P., Tonelli, P., Scaricabarozzi, I. Drugs (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Acetylsalicylic acid activates antinociceptive brain-stem reflex activity in headache patients and in healthy subjects. Göbel, H., Ernst, M., Jeschke, J., Keil, R., Weigle, L. Pain (1992) [Pubmed]
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  9. Hard-food mastication suppresses complete Freund's adjuvant-induced nociception. Ogawa, A., Morimoto, T., Hu, J.W., Tsuboi, Y., Tashiro, A., Noguchi, K., Nakagawa, H., Iwata, K. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Detection of CCK mRNA in the motor nucleus of the rat trigeminal nerve with in situ hybridization histochemistry. Sutin, E.L., Jacobowitz, D.M. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Head movements in the occlusal phase of mastication. Matsubara, N., Hisano, M., Minakuchi, S., Soma, K. J. Med. Dent. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Nonfunctional and functional occlusal contacts: a review of the literature. Woda, A., Vigneron, P., Kay, D. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Anomalous growth of rat incisor teeth during chronic intermittent vitamin A deficiency. McDowell, E.M., Shores, R.L., Spangler, E.F., Wenk, M.L., De Luca, L.M. J. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Food transport through the anterior oral cavity in macaques. German, R.Z., Saxe, S.A., Crompton, A.W., Hiiemae, K.M. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Muscimol infusions in the brain stem reticular formation reversibly block ingestion in the awake rat. Chen, Z., Travers, S.P., Travers, J.B. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pattern generator of mastication. Okayasu, I., Yamada, Y., Maeda, T., Yoshida, N., Koga, Y., Oi, K. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Review of aetiological concepts of temporomandibular pain disorders: towards a biopsychosocial model for integration of physical disorder factors with psychological and psychosocial illness impact factors. Suvinen, T.I., Reade, P.C., Kemppainen, P., Könönen, M., Dworkin, S.F. European journal of pain (London, England) (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Occlusal forces and mandibular bone strain: is the primate jaw "overdesigned"? Daegling, D.J., Hylander, W.L. J. Hum. Evol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Oral fat exposure increases the first phase triacylglycerol concentration due to release of stored lipid in humans. Mattes, R.D. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence that periodontal pressoreceptors provide positive feedback to jaw closing muscles during mastication. Lavigne, G., Kim, J.S., Valiquette, C., Lund, J.P. J. Neurophysiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of lidocaine and NMDA injections into the medial pontobulbar reticular formation on mastication evoked by cortical stimulation in anaesthetized rabbits. Scott, G., Westberg, K.G., Vrentzos, N., Kolta, A., Lund, J.P. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Modulation of transmission in rostral trigeminal sensory nuclei during chewing. Olsson, K.A., Sasamoto, K., Lund, J.P. J. Neurophysiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. cDNA cloning of S100 calcium-binding proteins from bovine periodontal ligament and their expression in oral tissues. Duarte, W.R., Kasugai, S., Iimura, T., Oida, S., Takenaga, K., Ohya, K., Ishikawa, I. J. Dent. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Application of bone morphogenetic proteins in the treatment of clinical oral and maxillofacial osseous defects. Boyne, P.J. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Mechanical stimuli enhances the expression of RGD-CAP/betaig-h3 in the periodontal ligament. Doi, T., Ohno, S., Tanimoto, K., Honda, K., Tanaka, N., Ohno-Nakahara, M., Yoneno, K., Suzuki, A., Nakatani, Y., Ueki, M., Tanne, K. Arch. Oral Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Facial skeletal growth in growing "toothless" osteopetrotic (op/op) mice: radiographic findings. Kawata, T., Tokimasa, C., Fujita, T., Ozawa, S., Sugiyama, H., Tanne, K. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Incidence of occlusal contacts with complete dentures during mastication using a 6-channel telemetry system: preliminary measurements. Kumagai, H., Watanabe, T., Kobayashi, K., Suzuki, T., Nagao, M., Nikawa, H., Hamada, T. Journal of oral rehabilitation. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Relationship between cognitive function and mastication in elderly females. Miura, H., Yamasaki, K., Kariyasu, M., Miura, K., Sumi, Y. Journal of oral rehabilitation. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Cineradiography in odontology. Karlsson, S. Swedish dental journal. Supplement. (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Ten-year longitudinal study of masticatory function in edentulous patients treated with fixed complete dentures on osseointegrated implants. Carlsson, G.E., Lindquist, L.W. The International journal of prosthodontics. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. The partial denture over a fixed guide bar appliance: a technique for restoring partially edentulous quadrants. Case report. Poschelk, K.K. Australian dental journal. (1990) [Pubmed]
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