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MeSH Review

Art Therapy

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Disease relevance of Art Therapy

  • IL-2 is under evaluation in antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption studies, but it is unclear how the emergence of viremia may affect CD4 expansions [1].
  • Six patients with preexisting HIV-lipodystrophy developed symptomatic Cushing's syndrome when treated with inhaled fluticasone at varying doses for asthma while concurrently treated with low-dose ritonavir-boosted PI antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for HIV infection [2].
  • Thirteen patients suffering from life threatening hepatic failure who had not responded to state of the art therapy were treated with this device, the molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS) [3].

Psychiatry related information on Art Therapy


High impact information on Art Therapy

  • INTERVENTIONS: Thirty-nine patients were randomly assigned to receive a combination therapy of subcutaneous IL-2 (administered in 5-day courses every 8 weeks at a starting dosage of 7.5 mIU twice per day) and ART; 43 were to receive ART therapy alone [6].
  • We examined the impact of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on subsequent antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in a prospective cohort of injection drug users [7].
  • BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and didanosine (ddI) has been associated with poor immune recovery despite virologic success [8].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of significant liver enzyme elevations following the initiation of protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) with or without pharmacokinetic boosting with ritonavir (RTV), and to define the role of chronic viral hepatitis in its development [9].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in immune activation and reconstitution markers among HIV-1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Art Therapy

  • T-cell proliferation was studied by ex vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and intracellular Ki67 staining in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) with or without IL-2 [11].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once daily doses of tenofovir DF (TDF) administered in combination with other antiretroviral therapy (ART) in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with incomplete virological suppression [12].
  • DESIGN: Thirty-six HIV-positive adults with fasting triglycerides (TGs) > or =2 mmol/l and stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) were randomly assigned to receive either micronised fenofibrate (200 mg/day) or Vitamin E (500 mg/day) for a first period of 3 months and the association of both for an additional 3-month period [13].
  • Among HIV+ women, time since menopause and weight were significant predictors of BMD, while duration or class of antiretroviral therapy (ART), AIDS diagnosis, nadir CD4, steroid use, and vitamin D deficiency were not [14].
  • Among the 83 patients with details of their antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen 51 patients were taking stavudine, 29 zidovudine, 27 didanosine, and 25 lamivudine [15].

Biological context of Art Therapy

  • A total of 73 patients with baseline CD4+ cell counts >/=350 cells/mm3 who were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) were randomized to receive subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2; n=36) in addition to ART or to continue ART alone (n=37) [16].
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare chromium measurements in HIV-positive patients with or without (N) antiretroviral therapy (ART) to that of healthy controls (HC) and, to determine if there is any association between chromium levels and abnormalities in body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism [17].

Anatomical context of Art Therapy


Gene context of Art Therapy

  • For further clarification a prospective follow-up study was performed including 66 female and 14 male total thyroidectomized patients with DTA for the time course of TPO and human thyroglobulin (hTg) in relation to the ablative radioidine therapy (ART) [19].
  • In eight patients, a sequential analysis was performed after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and correlations with CD4 cell count and HIV viremia were studied [20].
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE:s: To assess the restoration of immune responses to tuberculosis, as manifested by secretion of T-helper type 1 cytokines (interferon [IFN]-gamma, interleukin [IL]-12, and IL-2) and T-helper type 2 cytokines (IL-10), in HIV-positive patients who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) [21].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of change in antiretroviral therapy (ART) on patterns of CD8 T cell clonal dominance in HIV-infected children [22].
  • We also examined the association of CD4, CD38, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use with these outcomes in the subset of HIV-infected adolescents [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Art Therapy

  • In September 2001, the author was invited by Dr. Wendy Makin (Macmillan Consultant in Palliative Care) and Andrea Sarginson (Volunteer Arts Worker) to introduce art therapy to the Christie Hospital as part of a postgraduate training course at the University of Sheffield [24].


  1. Interruption of antiretroviral therapy blunts but does not abrogate CD4 T-cell responses to interleukin-2 administration in HIV infected patients. Keh, C.E., Shen, J.M., Hahn, B., Hallahan, C.W., Rehm, C.A., Thaker, V., Wynne, S.M., Davey, R.T., Lane, H.C., Sereti, I. AIDS (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome with osteoporosis and secondary adrenal failure in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors: six cases. Samaras, K., Pett, S., Gowers, A., McMurchie, M., Cooper, D.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS): clinical results of a new membrane-based blood purification system for bioartificial liver support. Stange, J., Mitzner, S.R., Risler, T., Erley, C.M., Lauchart, W., Goehl, H., Klammt, S., Peszynski, P., Freytag, J., Hickstein, H., Löhr, M., Liebe, S., Schareck, W., Hopt, U.T., Schmidt, R. Artificial organs. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Prevalence of HIV in the US household population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988 to 2002. McQuillan, G.M., Kruszon-Moran, D., Kottiri, B.J., Kamimoto, L.A., Lam, L., Cowart, M.F., Hubbard, M., Spira, T.J. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Epileptic seizures and infantile states: some thoughts from psychodynamic therapy. Cregeen, S. Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Immunologic and virologic effects of subcutaneous interleukin 2 in combination with antiretroviral therapy: A randomized controlled trial. Davey, R.T., Murphy, R.L., Graziano, F.M., Boswell, S.L., Pavia, A.T., Cancio, M., Nadler, J.P., Chaitt, D.G., Dewar, R.L., Sahner, D.K., Duliege, A.M., Capra, W.B., Leong, W.P., Giedlin, M.A., Lane, H.C., Kahn, J.O. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Impact of accessing methadone on the time to initiating HIV treatment among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected injection drug users. Wood, E., Hogg, R.S., Kerr, T., Palepu, A., Zhang, R., Montaner, J.S. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Dose-dependent influence of didanosine on immune recovery in HIV-infected patients treated with tenofovir. Karrer, U., Ledergerber, B., Furrer, H., Elzi, L., Battegay, M., Cavassini, M., Gayet-Ageron, A., Hirschel, B., Schmid, P., Russotti, M., Weber, R., Speck, R.F. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Hepatotoxicity associated with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimens with or without concurrent ritonavir. Sulkowski, M.S., Mehta, S.H., Chaisson, R.E., Thomas, D.L., Moore, R.D. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Changes in levels of immune activation and reconstitution markers among HIV-1-infected Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy. Koblavi-Dème, S., Maran, M., Kabran, N., Borget, M.Y., Kalou, M., Kestens, L., Maurice, C., Sassan-Morokro, M., Ekpini, E.R., Roels, T.H., Chorba, T., Nkengasong, J.N. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. IL-2-induced CD4+ T-cell expansion in HIV-infected patients is associated with long-term decreases in T-cell proliferation. Sereti, I., Anthony, K.B., Martinez-Wilson, H., Lempicki, R., Adelsberger, J., Metcalf, J.A., Hallahan, C.W., Follmann, D., Davey, R.T., Kovacs, J.A., Lane, H.C. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Tenofovir DF in antiretroviral-experienced patients: results from a 48-week, randomized, double-blind study. Schooley, R.T., Ruane, P., Myers, R.A., Beall, G., Lampiris, H., Berger, D., Chen, S.S., Miller, M.D., Isaacson, E., Cheng, A.K. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Fenofibrate improves the atherogenic lipid profile and enhances LDL resistance to oxidation in HIV-positive adults. Badiou, S., Merle De Boever, C., Dupuy, A.M., Baillat, V., Cristol, J.P., Reynes, J. Atherosclerosis (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Bone mass and mineral metabolism in HIV+ postmenopausal women. Yin, M., Dobkin, J., Brudney, K., Becker, C., Zadel, J.L., Manandhar, M., Addesso, V., Shane, E. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Lactic acidosis in HIV infected patients: a systematic review of published cases. Arenas-Pinto, A., Grant, A.D., Edwards, S., Weller, I.V. Sexually transmitted infections. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. A randomized, controlled, phase II trial comparing escalating doses of subcutaneous interleukin-2 plus antiretrovirals versus antiretrovirals alone in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >/=350/mm3. Losso, M.H., Belloso, W.H., Emery, S., Benetucci, J.A., Cahn, P.E., Lasala, M.C., Lopardo, G., Salomon, H., Saracco, M., Nelson, E., Law, M.G., Davey, R.T., Allende, M.C., Lane, H.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Is chromium an important element in HIV-positive patients with metabolic abnormalities? An hypothesis generating pilot study. Aghdassi, E., Salit, I.E., Fung, L., Sreetharan, L., Walmsley, S., Allard, J.P. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Nitric oxide production in HIV-1 infected patients receiving intermittent cycles of interleukin-2 and antiretrovirals. Torre, D., Speranza, F., Ghezzi, S., Nozza, S., Tambussi, G., Soldini, L., Dorigatti, F., Lazzarin, A., Tambini, R., Poli, G. HIV clinical trials. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) as a tumor marker in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinomas with surgical and ablative radioiodine therapy. An assessment after evaluation. Franke, W.G., Zöphel, K., Wunderlich, G., Kühne, A., Schimming, C., Kropp, J., Bredow, J. Anticancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Unscheduled cyclin B expression and p34 cdc2 activation in T lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients. Piedimonte, G., Corsi, D., Paiardini, M., Cannavò, G., Ientile, R., Picerno, I., Montroni, M., Silvestri, G., Magnani, M. AIDS (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Reconstitution of immune responses to tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection who receive antiretroviral therapy. Schluger, N.W., Perez, D., Liu, Y.M. Chest (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Patterns of CD8 T cell clonal dominance in response to change in antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children. Kharbanda, M., Than, S., Chitnis, V., Sun, M., Chavan, S., Bakshi, S., Pahwa, S. AIDS (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Natural killer cell enumeration and function in HIV-infected and high-risk uninfected adolescents. Douglas, S.D., Durako, S.J., Tustin, N.B., Houser, J., Muenz, L., Starr, S.E., Wilson, C. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Introducing art therapy into the Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK, 2001-2002. Heywood, K. Complementary therapies in nursing & midwifery. (2003) [Pubmed]
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