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Gene Review

MARS  -  methionyl-tRNA synthetase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: METRS, MRS, MTRNS, MetRS, Methionine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic, ...
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Disease relevance of MARS


Psychiatry related information on MARS

  • The results of applying the framework indicate that MARS incerases the cost of diagnostic radiology 2.3 per cent, significantly decreases report response time, and successfully performs the film management function [6].
  • In this case MARS treatment was successful in supporting the patient through the most critical period of ALF [7].
  • Thirteen patients suffering from life threatening hepatic failure who had not responded to state of the art therapy were treated with this device, the molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS) [8].

High impact information on MARS

  • The polar regions on Mars have distinctive morphologic and climatologic features: thick layered deposits, seasonal CO2 frost caps extending to mid latitudes, and near-polar residual frost deposits that survive the summer [9].
  • Most of what is currently known about multi-ring basins is based on remote studies of the Moon and, to a lesser extent, Mars and Mercury [10].
  • Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars [11].
  • Mass-independent isotopic compositions have been observed in O3, CO2, N2O, and CO in Earth's atmosphere and in carbonate from a martian meteorite, which suggests a role for mass-independent processes in the atmosphere of Mars [12].
  • Molecular hydrogen is strongly depleted in deuterium relative to water on Mars because of the very long lifetime of H2 (1200 years) [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of MARS


Biological context of MARS

  • The correlation between the presence of the human form of methioninyl -tRNA synthetase and human chromosome 12 in temperature-resistant hybrids indicates that the human MARS locus is located on this chromosome [19].
  • Analysis of MetRS mutant enzymes revealed that the HTH motif is more specifically endowed with a tRNA-sequestering activity and confers on MetRS a rate-limiting dissociation of aminoacylated tRNA [20].
  • A composite 2779-bp cDNA that encodes human cytoplasmic methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) has been constructed from partial cDNA clones derived from the gastric carcinoma cell line EPG85-257RNOV and the nucleotide sequence has been determined [21].
  • This study evaluates the acute effects of albumin dialysis, using the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS), on portal pressure in AH [22].
  • The present study was designed to determine the effect of MARS on the cytokine profile, oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and ammonia [23].

Anatomical context of MARS

  • In vitro heat-inactivation experiments on the methioninyl -tRNA synthetase activity in cell-free extracts from heat-resistant hybrids indicate that the human form of this enzyme and, therefore, the human MARS gene is present in hybrid cells [19].
  • Like BECAIT, analyses of data from the NHLBI type II study, CLAS, POSCH and MARS provide evidence for the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the progression of coronary artery disease [24].
  • The nuclear matrix or scaffold that can be prepared and investigated in vitro has an affinity for distinct topological forms of DNA and for sequences that permit the induction of such a topology by their association with a corresponding set of proteins (so-called matrix- or scaffold-attached regions, S/MARS) [25].
  • In conclusion, MARS significantly improves central nervous system functions [26].
  • MARS treatment was started as early as possible in order to prevent or retard the development of hepatocyte necrosis [27].

Associations of MARS with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSION: Pre-operative SOFA, level of creatinine, INR, TNF-alpha, IL-10 are the main preoperative risk factors that cause early death after operation, MARS treatment before transplantation can relieve these factors significantly [28].
  • SPAD induced a significantly greater reduction in bilirubin levels than MARS [29].
  • Six- to 8-h MARS treatments resulted in significant (P < 0.05) removal of bilirubin, bile acids, tryptophan, short- and middle-chain fatty acids, aromatic amino acids, and ammonia [3].
  • Rofecoxib-induced cholestatic hepatitis: treatment with molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS) [30].
  • In conclusion, systemic hemodynamic values tend to normalize, whereas systemic VO(2) decreases during MARS treatment in patients with HALF [15].

Other interactions of MARS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MARS

  • When operating MARS in continuous veno-venous hemodialysis mode, as recommended by the manufacturer, no significant differences in the removal of bilirubin, bile acids, urea, and creatinine were found [29].
  • The detoxification capacities of single-pass albumin dialysis (SPAD), the molecular adsorbents recirculation system, (MARS) and continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) were compared in vitro [29].
  • Further advances in the MARS components will definitively state whether albumin dialysis may represent the future in the field of artificial liver devices [36].
  • MARS dialysis in the state of chronic rejection in a liver transplant recipient [37].
  • Cardiac index decreased by 20% from 4.6 +/- 1.8 to 3.7 +/- 1.1 L/min x m(-2) (P =.0007) in the MARS group and by 7% in the control group [15].


  1. Albumin dialysis has no clear effect on cytokine levels in patients with life-threatening liver insufficiency. Ilonen, I., Koivusalo, A.M., H??ckerstedt, K., Isoniemi, H. Transplant. Proc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment of hepatorenal syndrome: lessons from the MARS trial. Mullen, K.D. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Extracorporeal detoxification using the molecular adsorbent recirculating system for critically ill patients with liver failure. Mitzner, S.R., Stange, J., Klammt, S., Peszynski, P., Schmidt, R., Nöldge-Schomburg, G. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Aneurysms in relatives of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: frequency and risk factors. MARS Study Group. Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Relatives of patients with Subarachnoid hemorrhage. Raaymakers, T.W. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Reversal of severe cholestasis caused by chronic graft-versus-host disease with the MARS liver-support device. Sen, S., Jalan, R., Morris, E.C., Steiner, C., Mackinnon, S., Williams, R. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Technology evaluation: a case study of MARS (Missouri Automated Radiology System). Fairman, W.L., Dickhaus, E.A. Medical care. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Liver support in fulminant liver failure after hemorrhagic shock. Faybik, P., Hetz, H., Krenn, C.G., Baker, A., Germann, P., Berlakovich, G., Steininger, R., Steltzer, H. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS): clinical results of a new membrane-based blood purification system for bioartificial liver support. Stange, J., Mitzner, S.R., Risler, T., Erley, C.M., Lauchart, W., Goehl, H., Klammt, S., Peszynski, P., Freytag, J., Hickstein, H., Löhr, M., Liebe, S., Schareck, W., Hopt, U.T., Schmidt, R. Artificial organs. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. North-south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars. Thomas, P.C., Malin, M.C., Edgett, K.S., Carr, M.H., Hartmann, W.K., Ingersoll, A.P., James, P.B., Soderblom, L.A., Veverka, J., Sullivan, R. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Friction melt distribution in a multi-ring impact basin. Spray, J.G., Thompson, L.M. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars. Smith, D.E., Zuber, M.T., Neumann, G.A. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Mass-independent isotope effects in planetary atmospheres and the early solar system. Thiemens, M.H. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Detection of atomic deuterium in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Krasnopolsky, V.A., Mumma, M.J., Gladstone, G.R. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. An outbreak of infections caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides. I. Clinical studies. Crossley, K., Loesch, D., Landesman, B., Mead, K., Chern, M., Strate, R. J. Infect. Dis. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Systemic hemodynamic effects of treatment with the molecular adsorbents recirculating system in patients with hyperacute liver failure: a prospective controlled trial. Schmidt, L.E., Wang, L.P., Hansen, B.A., Larsen, F.S. Liver Transpl. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Treatment of phenytoin toxicity by the molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS). Sen, S., Ratnaraj, N., Davies, N.A., Mookerjee, R.P., Cooper, C.E., Patsalos, P.N., Williams, R., Jalan, R. Epilepsia (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System: clinical experience in patients with liver failure based on hepatitis B in China. Chen, S., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Yang, X., Wang, M. Liver (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Amino acid dysbalance in liver failure is favourably influenced by recirculating albumin dialysis (MARS). Loock, J., Mitzner, S.R., Peters, E., Schmidt, R., Stange, J. Liver (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Assignment of the human MARS gene, encoding methioninyl-tRNA synthetase, to chromosome 12 using human X Chinese hamster cell hybrids. Cirullo, R.E., Wasmuth, J.J. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. The appended C-domain of human methionyl-tRNA synthetase has a tRNA-sequestering function. Kaminska, M., Shalak, V., Mirande, M. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a protein with high homology to yeast methionyl-tRNA synthetase. Lage, H., Dietel, M. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Albumin dialysis reduces portal pressure acutely in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. Sen, S., Mookerjee, R.P., Cheshire, L.M., Davies, N.A., Williams, R., Jalan, R. J. Hepatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Pathophysiological effects of albumin dialysis in acute-on-chronic liver failure: a randomized controlled study. Sen, S., Davies, N.A., Mookerjee, R.P., Cheshire, L.M., Hodges, S.J., Williams, R., Jalan, R. Liver Transpl. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Secondary preventive potential of lipid-lowering drugs. The Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (BECAIT). de Faire, U., Ericsson, C.G., Grip, L., Nilsson, J., Svane, B., Hamsten, A. Eur. Heart J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Scaffold/matrix-attached regions: topological switches with multiple regulatory functions. Bode, J., Stengert-Iber, M., Kay, V., Schlake, T., Dietz-Pfeilstetter, A. Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Improvement in central nervous system functions during treatment of liver failure with albumin dialysis MARS--a review of clinical, biochemical, and electrophysiological data. Mitzner, S., Loock, J., Peszynski, P., Klammt, S., Majcher-Peszynska, J., Gramowski, A., Stange, J., Schmidt, R. Metabolic brain disease. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Experience with albumin dialysis in five patients with severe overdoses of paracetamol. Koivusalo, A.M., Yildirim, Y., Vakkuri, A., Lindgren, L., Höckerstedt, K., Isoniemi, H. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Preoperative risk factor analysis in orthotopic liver transplantation with pretransplant artificial liver support therapy. Yuan, J.Z., Ye, Q.F., Zhao, L.L., Ming, Y.Z., Sun, H., Zhu, S.H., Huang, Z.F., Wang, M.M. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. In vitro comparison of the molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS) and single-pass albumin dialysis (SPAD). Sauer, I.M., Goetz, M., Steffen, I., Walter, G., Kehr, D.C., Schwartlander, R., Hwang, Y.J., Pascher, A., Gerlach, J.C., Neuhaus, P. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Rofecoxib-induced cholestatic hepatitis: treatment with molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS). Huster, D., Schubert, C., Berr, F., Mössner, J., Caca, K. J. Hepatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. The effect of albumin dialysis on cytokine levels in acute liver failure and need for liver transplantation. Isoniemi, H., Koivusalo, A.M., Repo, H., Ilonen, I., Höckerstedt, K. Transplant. Proc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Activation of microhelix charging by localized helix destabilization. Alexander, R.W., Nordin, B.E., Schimmel, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. MARS treatment for a patient presenting with acquired hepatic glutamine synthetase deficiency after orthotopic liver transplantation. Chiu, A., Tam, S., Au, W.Y., Chan, S.C., Liu, C.L., Fan, S.T. Liver Transpl. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Extracorporeal liver support by recirculating albumin dialysis: analysing the effect of the first clinically used generation of the MARSystem. Klammt, S., Stange, J., Mitzner, S.R., Peszynski, P., Peters, E., Liebe, S. Liver (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Nitric-oxide-lowering effect of terlipressin in decompensated cirrhosis: comparison to the molecular adsorbent recirculating system and correlation with clinical status. Kurtovic, J., Boyle, M., Bihari, D., Riordan, S.M. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Advances in extracorporeal detoxification by MARS dialysis in patients with liver failure. Di Campli, C., Zileri Dal Verme, L., Andrisani, M.C., Armuzzi, A., Candelli, M., Gaspari, R., Gasbarrini, A. Current medicinal chemistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. MARS dialysis in the state of chronic rejection in a liver transplant recipient. Schachschal, G., Morgera, S., Küpferling, S., Schmidt, H.H., Lochs, H. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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