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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Risk-Taking

  • Methadone maintenance therapy resulted in a lower rate of drug-related (mean [SD] at 12 months, 2.17 [3.88] vs 3.73 [6.86]) but not sex-related HIV risk behaviors and in a lower severity score for legal status (mean [SD] at 12 months, 0.05 [0.13] vs 0.13 [0.19]) [1].
  • To examine the extent and correlates of infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) in an inner-city community, we studied the prevalence of antibodies to these viruses and their association with risk behaviors in a representative sample of unmarried white, black, and Hispanic adults living in San Francisco, Calif. DESIGN [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most studies reported frequent sildenafil use in men who have sex with men, and several showed independent associations between use of the drug and sexual risk behavior, as well as an increased risk for STDs, including incident HIV infection [3].
  • HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 and 33 seropositivity was used as a marker for the different HPV infections, and seropositivity for Chlamydia trachomatis and cotinine were used as markers for risk-taking sexual behavior and smoking respectively [4].
  • GOAL: To compare the use-effectiveness of azithromycin and doxycycline for preventing persistence or recurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women and to evaluate associated risk behaviors [5].

Psychiatry related information on Risk-Taking


High impact information on Risk-Taking

  • We administered a questionnaire based on the 1989 Secondary School Health Risk Survey and the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to 1881 students enrolled in compulsory health-science classes (mean [+/- SD] age, 14.9 +/- 1.0 years) in the Richmond County, Georgia, school system [11].
  • CONTEXT: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that physicians assess patients' health risk behaviors, addressing those needing modification [12].
  • OBJECTIVE--To estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk behaviors among young homosexual and bisexual men sampled from public venues in San Francisco and Berkeley, Calif. DESIGN--A survey of 425 young homosexual and bisexual men sampled from 26 locations during 1992 and 1993 [13].
  • Cocaine use, risk taking, and fatal Russian roulette [14].
  • CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations quantified early in life is a powerful biological predictor of future excessive aggression, risk taking, and premature death among nonhuman primate males [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Risk-Taking

  • Increased aggression, risk-taking behavior, or depression has been associated with low cholesterol levels in some studies [16].
  • This high-risk practice correlated with greater numbers of male sex partners, use of nitrite inhalants, sex in commercial sex environments, perceived difficulty controlling sexual risk-taking, and negative emotional reactions following UAI [17].
  • The present study was designed to assess the acute effects of MDMA and alcohol, alone and in combination, on behavioral measures of impulsivity and risk-taking behavior [18].
  • Risk-taking behavior: effects of ethanol, caffeine, and basal sleepiness [19].
  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of ethanol, caffeine, and basal sleepiness on a laboratory measure of risk-taking behavior, the Stop Light Task [19].

Biological context of Risk-Taking

  • Substantial simultaneity of risk-taking was observed, with a high level of both non-injecting (crack, 82%) and injecting (heroin, cocaine or both, 16 30%) drug use, the exchange of sex or money for drugs by men (approximately 35%) and women (57-71%), and high frequency of same-sex sexual activity by men (9.4%) and women (33%) [20].
  • As in other parts of the nation, this may be due to diminishing risk behavior among male homosexuals and the continuing effect of the cocaine epidemic and "drugs for sex," prostitution [21].
  • METHODS: Three surveys were reviewed in this paper: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control (1991, 1995, 1997); The Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders Study (1991); and the Youth Survey (1997-98) [22].
  • The second part discusses biological traits associated with both risk-taking and personality, particularly sensation seeking, such as the D4 dopamine receptor gene. the enzyme monoamine oxidase, and augmenting or reducing of the cortical evoked potential [23].
  • In January 2005, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a national consultation of scientists, public health officials, and community service providers to address growing concerns about the association of methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior for HIV/STD infection, which is well documented among men who have sex with men [24].

Gene context of Risk-Taking

  • Risk-behavior bias predicted more drug and cigarette use and predicted less participation in drug treatment at Wave 3 [25].
  • Source of referral to ASAP, interest in treatment, and prior sexual risk behavior change were significant predictors of intervention outcome [26].
  • When adjustment was made for markers of sexual risk taking, only genital warts remained significantly (p = 0.05) associated with SFM as compared to both SSM and COMP [27].
  • Contrary to earlier beliefs, ADHD frequently persists into adolescence and adulthood and is associated with poor health choices and risk-taking behavior [28].
  • Thus, overall, mice with targeted mutation of the BDNF gene exhibited increased spontaneous locomotion and increased response to acute amphetamine, altered response to chronic cocaine, increased aggression, increase in risk-taking behavior, as demonstrated by time spent in the center of an open field, and changes in eating patterns [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Risk-Taking


  1. Methadone maintenance vs 180-day psychosocially enriched detoxification for treatment of opioid dependence: a randomized controlled trial. Sees, K.L., Delucchi, K.L., Masson, C., Rosen, A., Clark, H.W., Robillard, H., Banys, P., Hall, S.M. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevalence and correlates of herpes simplex infections. The population-based AIDS in Multiethnic Neighborhoods Study. Siegel, D., Golden, E., Washington, A.E., Morse, S.A., Fullilove, M.T., Catania, J.A., Marin, B., Hulley, S.B. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Sildenafil use, sexual risk behavior, and risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. Swearingen, S.G., Klausner, J.D. Am. J. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. No excess risk of cervical carcinoma among women seropositive for both HPV16 and HPV6/11. Luostarinen, T., af Geijersstam, V., Bjørge, T., Eklund, C., Hakama, M., Hakulinen, T., Jellum, E., Koskela, P., Paavonen, J., Pukkala, E., Schiller, J.T., Thoresen, S., Youngman, L.D., Dillner, J., Lehtinen, M. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Doxycycline and azithromycin for prevention of chlamydial persistence or recurrence one month after treatment in women. A use-effectiveness study in public health settings. Hillis, S.D., Coles, F.B., Litchfield, B., Black, C.M., Mojica, B., Schmitt, K., St Louis, M.E. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Sentinel surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus infection in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States. McCray, E., Onorato, I.M. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Behavioral treatment approaches for methamphetamine dependence and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among urban gay and bisexual men. Shoptaw, S., Reback, C.J., Peck, J.A., Yang, X., Rotheram-Fuller, E., Larkins, S., Veniegas, R.C., Freese, T.E., Hucks-Ortiz, C. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Decision-making deficits of korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: associations with executive functions. Brand, M., Fujiwara, E., Borsutzky, S., Kalbe, E., Kessler, J., Markowitsch, H.J. Neuropsychology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Is antisocial personality disorder associated with increased HIV risk behaviors in cocaine users? Compton, W.M., Cottler, L.B., Shillington, A.M., Price, R.K. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Differences in impulsivity and sexual risk behavior among inner-city crack/cocaine users and heroin users. Lejuez, C.W., Bornovalova, M.A., Daughters, S.B., Curtin, J.J. Drug and alcohol dependence. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Use of multiple drugs among adolescents who use anabolic steroids. DuRant, R.H., Rickert, V.I., Ashworth, C.S., Newman, C., Slavens, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. The relationship between patient income and physician discussion of health risk behaviors. Taira, D.A., Safran, D.G., Seto, T.B., Rogers, W.H., Tarlov, A.R. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Seroprevalence of HIV and risk behaviors among young homosexual and bisexual men. The San Francisco/Berkeley Young Men's Survey. Lemp, G.F., Hirozawa, A.M., Givertz, D., Nieri, G.N., Anderson, L., Lindegren, M.L., Janssen, R.S., Katz, M. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Cocaine use, risk taking, and fatal Russian roulette. Marzuk, P.M., Tardiff, K., Smyth, D., Stajic, M., Leon, A.C. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Excessive mortality in young free-ranging male nonhuman primates with low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations. Higley, J.D., Mehlman, P.T., Higley, S.B., Fernald, B., Vickers, J., Lindell, S.G., Taub, D.M., Suomi, S.J., Linnoila, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Lack of relations of hostility, negative affect, and high-risk behavior with low plasma lipid levels in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Markovitz, J.H., Smith, D., Raczynski, J.M., Oberman, A., Williams, O.D., Knox, S., Jacobs, D.R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Gay men report high rates of unprotected anal sex with partners of unknown or discordant HIV status. Ekstrand, M.L., Stall, R.D., Paul, J.P., Osmond, D.H., Coates, T.J. AIDS (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behavioral measures of impulsivity: alone and in combination with alcohol. Ramaekers, J.G., Kuypers, K.P. Neuropsychopharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Risk-taking behavior: effects of ethanol, caffeine, and basal sleepiness. Roehrs, T., Greenwald, M., Roth, T. Sleep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The Atlanta Urban Networks Study: a blueprint for endemic transmission. Rothenberg, R.B., Long, D.M., Sterk, C.E., Pach, A., Potterat, J.J., Muth, S., Baldwin, J.A., Trotter, R.T. AIDS (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Early syphilis in New York City: 1985-1990. Ong, K.R., Rubin, S., Brome-Bunting, M., Labes, K. New York state journal of medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. An overview of reported youth violence in Puerto Rico. Velez, C.N. Puerto Rico health sciences journal. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Personality and risk-taking: common biosocial factors. Zuckerman, M., Kuhlman, D.M. Journal of personality. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. CDC consultation on methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior for HIV/STD infection: summary and suggestions. Mansergh, G., Purcell, D.W., Stall, R., McFarlane, M., Semaan, S., Valentine, J., Valdiserri, R. Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Associations between drug abuse treatment and cigarette use: evidence of substance replacement. Conner, B.T., Stein, J.A., Longshore, D., Stacy, A.W. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Evaluation of a hospital based substance abuse intervention and referral service for HIV affected patients. Guydish, J., Temoshok, L., Dilley, J., Rinaldi, J. General hospital psychiatry. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Sexually transmitted diseases in Swedish women with experience of casual sex with men of foreign nationalities within Sweden. Arvidson, M., Hellberg, D., Mårdh, P.A. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Stop, look, and listen: the challenge for children with ADHD. Meaux, J.B. Issues in comprehensive pediatric nursing. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Possible involvement of the ERK signaling cascade in bipolar disorder: behavioral leads from the study of mutant mice. Einat, H., Manji, H.K., Gould, T.D., Du, J., Chen, G. Drug News Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. HIV infection and risk behaviors among male port workers in Santos, Brazil. Larcerda, R., Stall, R., Gravato, N., Tellini, R., Hudes, E.S., Hearst, N. American journal of public health. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Diabetes mellitus is the major risk factor for African Americans who undergo peripheral bypass graft operation. Brothers, T.E., Robison, J.G., Elliott, B.M. J. Vasc. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. HIV seroprevalence in intravenous drug users: Los Angeles, California, 1986. Mascola, L., Lieb, L., Iwakoshi, K.A., McAllister, D., Siminowski, T., Giles, M., Run, G., Fannin, S.L., Strantz, I.H. American journal of public health. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Ethnic differences in adolescent substance initiation sequences. Guerra, L.M., Romano, P.S., Samuels, S.J., Kass, P.H. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of integration of injury control information into a high school physics course. Martinez, R., Levine, D.W., Martin, R., Altman, D.G. Annals of emergency medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
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