The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Euryarchaeota


High impact information on Euryarchaeota

  • Specific resilience-function relations were found in neutron-scattering experiments on purple membranes containing bacteriorhodopsin, the light-activated proton pump of halobacteria; the connection between resilience and stability is illustrated by a study of myoglobin in different environments [4].
  • Polyhydric alcohols, free amino acids and their derivatives, and combinations of urea and methylamines are the three types of osmolyte systems found in all water-stressed organisms except the halobacteria [5].
  • Whereas components of methanogenesis and of phototrophic energy transduction in halobacteria appear to be unique to Archaea, respiratory complexes and the ATP synthase exhibit some chimeric features with respect to their evolutionary origin [6].
  • Halorhodopsin (HR), the light-driven chloride pump in halobacteria, was digested with various proteolytic enzymes [7].
  • Among archaebacteria, coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) and coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate) play central roles in the anaerobic production of CH4 and associated energy conversion by methanogens, whereas the major thiol in the aerobic phototrophic halobacteria is gamma-glutamylcysteine [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Euryarchaeota

  • Upon addition of retinal, archaeopsin-1 expressed in Escherichia coli (ecaO-1002) regenerated the chromophore in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) mixed micelles as efficiently as the same opsin prepared from halobacteria [9].

Biological context of Euryarchaeota


Anatomical context of Euryarchaeota


Associations of Euryarchaeota with chemical compounds

  • Bacteriohodopsin (bR)-producing Halobacteria halobium were grown on a stringent medium containing either ring-perdeuterated proline or 15N-labeled proline [16].
  • The cell surface glycoprotein of Halobacteria contains two different types of sulfated saccharides: hexuronic acid-containing oligosaccharides linked to the protein via asparaginylglucose, and a serially repeated saccharide unit containing amino sugars that resembles the animal glycosaminoglycans [17].
  • Thus, gamma-glutamylcysteine is at least as stable under halophilic conditions as GSH is under nonhalophilic conditions, explaining why halobacteria utilize gamma-glutamylcysteine rather than GSH [18].
  • Biosynthesis of sulfated saccharides N-glycosidically linked to the protein via glucose. Purification and identification of sulfated dolichyl monophosphoryl tetrasaccharides from halobacteria [19].
  • These results indicate that Halobacteria contains specific proteins with a novel type of modification of a cysteine residue of the proteins with a diphytanylglyceryl group in thioether linkage [20].

Gene context of Euryarchaeota

  • The genes coding for DP1 and DP2, the subunits of this DNA polymerase, are highly conserved in the Euryarchaeota [21].
  • The action of novobiocin and coumermycin (two coumarins which interact with the gyrB subunit of eubacterial DNA gyrase) and ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone which interacts with the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase) was tested on several archaebacteria, including five methanogens, two halobacteria, and a thermoacidophile [22].
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Lig(Tk) was closely related to the ATP-dependent DNA ligase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH, a moderate thermophilic archaeon, along with putative DNA ligases from Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota [23].
  • Archaeal histones from mesophilic, thermophilic, and hyperthermophilic members of the Euryarchaeota have primary sequences, the histone fold, tertiary structures, and dimer formation in common with the eukaryal nucleosome core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 [24].
  • A heterodimeric DNA polymerase: evidence that members of Euryarchaeota possess a distinct DNA polymerase [10].


  1. Microbial hydrogenases: primary structure, classification, signatures and phylogeny. Wu, L.F., Mandrand, M.A. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Localization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein L16 on the surface of 60 S ribosomal subunits by immunoelectron microscopy. Tsay, Y.F., Shankweiler, G., Lake, J., Woolford, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Metalloproteins in the evolution of photosynthesis. Cammack, R., Rao, K.K., Hall, D.O. BioSystems (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. How soft is a protein? A protein dynamics force constant measured by neutron scattering. Zaccai, G. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems. Yancey, P.H., Clark, M.E., Hand, S.C., Bowlus, R.D., Somero, G.N. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Bioenergetics of the Archaea. Schäfer, G., Engelhard, M., Müller, V. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Structure and orientation of halorhodopsin in the membrane: a proteolytic fragmentation study. Schobert, B., Lanyi, J.K., Oesterhelt, D. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel thiols of prokaryotes. Fahey, R.C. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. An insertion or deletion in the extramembrane loop connecting helices E and F of archaerhodopsin-1 affects in vitro refolding and slows the photocycle. Sugiyama, Y., Koyanagi, T., Yamada, N., Mukohata, Y. Photochem. Photobiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. A heterodimeric DNA polymerase: evidence that members of Euryarchaeota possess a distinct DNA polymerase. Cann, I.K., Komori, K., Toh, H., Kanai, S., Ishino, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Archaeabacterial seryl-tRNA synthetases: adaptation to extreme environments and evolutionary analysis. Taupin, C.M., Leberman, R. J. Mol. Evol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of a genome fragment of a deep-sea uncultivated Group II euryarchaeote containing 16S rDNA, a spectinomycin-like operon and several energy metabolism genes. Moreira, D., Rodríguez-Valera, F., López-García, P. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. A CCCH zinc finger conserved in a replication protein a homolog found in diverse Euryarchaeotes. Lin, Y., Robbins, J.B., Nyannor, E.K., Chen, Y.H., Cann, I.K. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Phototrophic growth of halobacteria and its use for isolation of photosynthetically-deficient mutants. Oesterhelt, D., Krippahl, G. Ann. Microbiol. (Paris) (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. The M intermediate of Pharaonis phoborhodopsin is photoactive. Balashov, S.P., Sumi, M., Kamo, N. Biophys. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Fourier transform infrared evidence for proline structural changes during the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Rothschild, K.J., He, Y.W., Gray, D., Roepe, P.D., Pelletier, S.L., Brown, R.S., Herzfeld, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Asparaginyl-N-acetylgalactosamine. Linkage unit of halobacterial glycosaminoglycan. Paul, G., Lottspeich, F., Wieland, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. The function of gamma-glutamylcysteine and bis-gamma-glutamylcystine reductase in Halobacterium halobium. Sundquist, A.R., Fahey, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Biosynthesis of sulfated saccharides N-glycosidically linked to the protein via glucose. Purification and identification of sulfated dolichyl monophosphoryl tetrasaccharides from halobacteria. Lechner, J., Wieland, F., Sumper, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel type of protein modification by isoprenoid-derived materials. Diphytanylglycerylated proteins in Halobacteria. Sagami, H., Kikuchi, A., Ogura, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Archaeal DNA replication: identifying the pieces to solve a puzzle. Cann, I.K., Ishino, Y. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Coumarin and quinolone action in archaebacteria: evidence for the presence of a DNA gyrase-like enzyme. Sioud, M., Possot, O., Elie, C., Sibold, L., Forterre, P. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. A DNA ligase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon with unique cofactor specificity. Nakatani, M., Ezaki, S., Atomi, H., Imanaka, T. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Histones and nucleosomes in Archaea and Eukarya: a comparative analysis. Pereira, S.L., Reeve, J.N. Extremophiles (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities