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Disease relevance of Ganoderma

  • Treatment of glomerular endothelial dysfunction in steroid-resistant nephrosis with Ganoderma lucidum, vitamins C, E and vasodilators [1].
  • Possible mode of antiviral activity of acidic protein bound polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on herpes simplex viruses [2].
  • Anti-inflammatory assays on the carrageenin-induced edema and scald-induced hyperalgesia in the hindpaw of rats were studied on polysaccharides obtained from the fruit bodies of various fungi (polysaccharide AC, BC: Tremella fuciformis;MEA, MHA, MCW-A, MCW-N: Auricularia auricula-judae; T-2-HN: Dictophora indusiata;G-A: Ganoderma japonicum) [3].

High impact information on Ganoderma

  • In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Inonotus obliquus, and Flammulina velutipes) [4].
  • Of these patients, 182 (61.9%) reacted to 1 or more of the common inhalant allergen extracts and 24 (8.2%) reacted to Ganoderma antigen [5].
  • Hence, chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides [Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)] were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initiation and promotion processes in carcinogenesis [6].
  • Fungal immunomodulatory protein, FIP-gts, has been isolated from Ganoderma tsugae [7].
  • Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors [8].

Biological context of Ganoderma


Anatomical context of Ganoderma


Associations of Ganoderma with chemical compounds

  • Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) [11].
  • A new lanostane-type terpenoid, lucidenic acid SP1 (1), was isolated from a CHCl(3)-soluble fraction of Ganoderma lucidum spores together with four other known compounds (2 - 5) [12].
  • Effects of the extracts of Ganoderma lucidum on blood glucose level in rats [13].
  • The present paper describes the development of a micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method for the determination of nucleoside (adenosine, uridine) and base (uracil) markers in aqueous extracts of Ganoderma medicinal preparations [14].
  • The inhibitors from Ganoderma lucidum were identified as ganoderic acid A and ganoderic acid C by comparison with the reported spectral data [15].

Gene context of Ganoderma

  • We found that Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (0.2-1.6 mg/ml) stimulated TNF-alpha and IL-6 production after 8h treatment in human whole blood [16].
  • IFN-gamma release from human whole blood was also enhanced after 3 day-culture with Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (0.2-1.0mg/ml) [16].
  • Increased release of IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (sICAM-1) in PTEC induced by HSA was ameliorated by co-incubation with Ganoderma (16 microg/ml) [17].
  • Novel antioxidant peptides from fermented mushroom Ganoderma lucidum [18].
  • The release of protein from Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and the activity of cytoplasmatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the crude extracts were monitored to determine the efficiency of each disintegration technique used [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ganoderma


  1. Treatment of glomerular endothelial dysfunction in steroid-resistant nephrosis with Ganoderma lucidum, vitamins C, E and vasodilators. Futrakul, N., Boonyen, M., Patumraj, S., Siriviriyakul, P., Tosukhowong, P., Futrakul, P. Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Possible mode of antiviral activity of acidic protein bound polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on herpes simplex viruses. Eo, S.K., Kim, Y.S., Lee, C.K., Han, S.S. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Polysaccharides in fungi. XIV. Anti-inflammatory effect of the polysaccharides from the fruit bodies of several fungi. Ukai, S., Kiho, T., Hara, C., Kuruma, I., Tanaka, Y. J. Pharmacobio-dyn. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective. Wasser, S.P., Weis, A.L. Crit. Rev. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Human sensitization to Ganoderma antigen. Tarlo, S.M., Bell, B., Srinivasan, J., Dolovich, J., Hargreave, F.E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor). Kim, H.S., Kacew, S., Lee, B.M. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Transcriptionally mediated inhibition of telomerase of fungal immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Liao, C.H., Hsiao, Y.M., Hsu, C.P., Lin, M.Y., Wang, J.C., Huang, Y.L., Ko, J.L. Mol. Carcinog. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors. Hajjaj, H., Macé, C., Roberts, M., Niederberger, P., Fay, L.B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Studies on the immuno-modulating and antitumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides: functional and proteomic analyses of a fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction responsible for the activities. Wang, Y.Y., Khoo, K.H., Chen, S.T., Lin, C.C., Wong, C.H., Lin, C.H. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide on injury of macrophages induced by reactive oxygen species. You, Y.H., Lin, Z.B. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum. D'Souza, T.M., Merritt, C.S., Reddy, C.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Anticomplement activity of terpenoids from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Min, B.S., Gao, J.J., Hattori, M., Lee, H.K., Kim, Y.H. Planta Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of the extracts of Ganoderma lucidum on blood glucose level in rats. Kimura, Y., Okuda, H., Arichi, S. Planta Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification and quantification of base and nucleoside markers in extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma japonicum and Ganoderma capsules by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Cheung, H.Y., Ng, C.W., Hood, D.J. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Natural inhibitors for protein prenyltransferase. Lee, S., Park, S., Oh, J.W., Yang, C. Planta Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-kappaB. Kuo, M.C., Weng, C.Y., Ha, C.L., Wu, M.J. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Ganoderma extract prevents albumin-induced oxidative damage and chemokines synthesis in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells. Lai, K.N., Chan, L.Y., Tang, S.C., Leung, J.C. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Novel antioxidant peptides from fermented mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Sun, J., He, H., Xie, B.J. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. A comparative study on the disintegration of filamentous fungi. Taubert, J., Krings, U., Berger, R.G. J. Microbiol. Methods (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Structural features of immunologically active polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Bao, X.F., Wang, X.S., Dong, Q., Fang, J.N., Li, X.Y. Phytochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Trial of a new medium-term model using benzo(a)pyrene induced lung tumor in newborn mice. Yun, T.K., Kim, S.H., Lee, Y.S. Anticancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Ganoderma lucidum extract protects DNA from strand breakage caused by hydroxyl radical and UV irradiation. Kim, K.C., Kim, I.G. Int. J. Mol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Antimicrobial activity of some Ganoderma species from Nigeria. Ofodile, L.N., Uma, N.U., Kokubun, T., Grayer, R.J., Ogundipe, O.T., Simmonds, M.S. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2005) [Pubmed]
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