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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Phalaris


High impact information on Phalaris

  • A self-fertile mutant of Phalaris produces an S protein with reduced thioredoxin activity [4].
  • The possible role of thioredoxin-like activity of the S protein in mediating the incompatibility reaction in Phalaris is discussed [5].
  • In the present study, the role of melatonin as a growth promoter is extended to coleoptiles of canary grass, wheat, barley and oat, in which it shows a relative auxinic activity [with respect to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the main auxin in plants] of between 10 and 55% [6].
  • METHODS: A canary grass pollen lambda gt11 cDNA expression library was constructed and screened with sera of grass-pollen-sensitive patients [7].
  • BACKGROUND: The pollen of canary grass, which was introduced as a pasture grass from Europe, is a major allergen source in the external environment of southern Australia. This study was performed to characterize the major recombinant allergens of canary grass pollen [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Phalaris

  • The clinical signs displayed by 96 sheep affected by the nervous syndrome of Phalaris aquatica toxicity and 10 normal sheep injected intravenously with the phalaris alkaloid, 5-methoxy dimethyltryptamine (dose range 0.01 to 5.0 mg/kg), were observed [8].

Anatomical context of Phalaris

  • The distributions of phalaris indole-like cytoplasmic pigments in nuclei of the brains and spinal cords of 9 naturally affected sheep were determined microscopically [8].

Associations of Phalaris with chemical compounds


Gene context of Phalaris

  • Results from this study indicate that reed canary grass facilitates photochemical degradation of RDX, and this mechanism should be considered along with more established phytoremediation processes when assessing the fate of contaminants in plant tissues [9].
  • After nearly 100d, PCB recoveries ranged from 69% of initial applications in unplanted soil to 65, 59 and 55% of initial levels in soils that were unamended but planted with flat pea, reed canarygrass and burr medic respectively [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phalaris

  • Using amino-reactive and phenolic hydroxyl-reactive homobifunctional reagents, simple methods were devised for coupling toxins representative of those in phalaris to carrier proteins and enzymes for ELISA development [13].
  • Therefore, the presence of hordenine in the urine of humans consuming beer or in the urine of horses consuming canary grass may give false positive values when the immunoassay and TLC methods are used for the screening of the urine sample [12].


  1. Some hematological and histopathological effects of the alkaloids gramine and hordenine on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Goelz, M.F., Rothenbacher, H., Wiggins, J.P., Kendall, W.A., Hershberger, T.V. Toxicology (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock. Cheeke, P.R. J. Anim. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanisms underlying Phalaris aquatica "sudden death" syndrome in sheep. Bourke, C.A., Carrigan, M.J. Aust. Vet. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. A self-fertile mutant of Phalaris produces an S protein with reduced thioredoxin activity. Li, X., Nield, J., Hayman, D., Langridge, P. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Thioredoxin activity in the C terminus of Phalaris S protein. Li, X., Nield, J., Hayman, D., Langridge, P. Plant J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Melatonin acts as a growth-stimulating compound in some monocot species. Hernández-Ruiz, J., Cano, A., Arnao, M.B. J. Pineal Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning, sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of Pha a 1 and four isoforms of Pha a 5, the major allergens of canary grass pollen. Suphioglu, C., Singh, M.B. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The pathogenesis of the nervous syndrome of Phalaris aquatica toxicity in sheep. Bourke, C.A., Carrigan, M.J., Dixon, R.J. Aust. Vet. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Phytophotolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in leaves of reed canary grass. Just, C.L., Schnoor, J.L. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Liquid chromatographic method for the micro-quantitative determination of clodinafop in soil, wheat and Phalaris minor. Roy, S., Singh, S.B. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Affinity chromatography of an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase using immobilized S-adenosylhomocysteine. Purification of the indolethylamine N-methyltransferases of phalaris tuberosa. Mack, J.P., Slaytor, M.B. J. Chromatogr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Screening and confirmation of drugs in urine: interference of hordenine with the immunoassays and thin layer chromatography methods. Singh, A.K., Granley, K., Misrha, U., Naeem, K., White, T., Jiang, Y. Forensic Sci. Int. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Development of immunoassays for tyramine and tryptamine toxins of Phalaris aquatica L. Skerritt, J.H., Guihot, S.L., McDonald, S.E., Culvenor, R.A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Enhancing dissipation of aroclor 1248 (PCB) using substrate amendment in rhizosphere soil. Dzantor, E.K., Woolston, J.E. Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering. (2001) [Pubmed]
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