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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Haplorhini

  • In Old World anthropoids, in which males and females are both trichromats, blue-ON/yellow-OFF retinal ganglion cells have excitatory SWS-cone and inhibitory middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive (MWS- and LWS-) cone inputs, and have been anatomically identified as small-field bistratified ganglion cells (SB-cells) (Dacey & Lee, 1994) [1].

High impact information on Haplorhini

  • Sequence comparisons have provided evidence that marked increases of non-synonymous substitution rates occurred in anthropoid ETC genes that encode subunits of Complex III and IV, and the electron carrier molecule cytochrome c (CYC) [2].
  • The ubiquitously expressed isoform, COX8L, underwent nonsynonymous rate acceleration and elevation in the ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous changes in the stem of anthropoid primates (New World monkeys and catarrhines), possibly setting the stage for loss of the heart-type (H) isoform [3].
  • Postcrania of Pondaungia present a mosaic of features, some shared in common with notharctine and adapine adapiforms, some shared with extant lorises and cebids, some shared with fossil anthropoids, and some unique [4].
  • These observations suggest that the ZNF91 gene cluster is a derived character specific to Anthropoidea, resulting from a duplication and amplification event some 55 million years ago in the common ancestor of simians [5].
  • The involucrin genes of the prosimian primates and of the anthropoid primates possess nonhomologous segments of repeats located at two different sites, P and M, within the coding region [6].

Biological context of Haplorhini


Anatomical context of Haplorhini


Associations of Haplorhini with chemical compounds

  • First, the DRB loci present in human populations diverged from one another before the divergence of prosimian and anthropoid primates [15].
  • Sensitivity of rats, dogs, and anthropoid species to these, as to other xanthine oxidase inhibitors, is markedly less than that of the squirrel monkey, but the triazoles are at least an order of magnitude more active than the representative purine analogs tested [16].
  • As compared to strepsirhines, crown anthropoids have a vertically longer ascending ramus linked to a glenoid and condyle positioned relatively higher above the occlusal plane [17].
  • Vitamin C biosynthesis in prosimians: evidence for the anthropoid affinity of Tarsius [18].
  • Low-level dietary exposure to ethanol via ingestion of fermenting fruit has probably characterized the predominantly frugivorous anthropoid lineage for about 40 million years [19].

Gene context of Haplorhini

  • In addition, the human SRP9/14 binds with higher affinity than mouse SRP9/14 to all RNAs analyzed and this difference is not explained by the additional C-terminal domain present in the anthropoid SRP14 [20].
  • When MHC-G molecules in primates (New World and Old World monkeys, Anthropoids and humans) were compared phylogenetically, very different evolutionary patterns within each species were found; their molecules did not have a straight forward and linear development throughout the postulated evolutionary pathway of primates [21].
  • Consequently, insertion of the Alu monomer that gave rise to the BC200 RNA gene must have occurred after the anthropoid lineage diverged from the prosimian lineage(s) [9].
  • Statistical tests demonstrated that at least a portion of the RHAG gene was subjected to a positive selection during evolution of anthropoids [22].
  • A reassessment of mammalian alpha A-crystallin sequences using DNA sequencing: implications for anthropoid affinities of tarsier [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Haplorhini

  • Genomic PCR analysis of three anthropoid species, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan, showed the presence of a similarly mutated hELP1 gene [24].


  1. Ganglion cells of a short-wavelength-sensitive cone pathway in New World monkeys: morphology and physiology. Silveira, L.C., Lee, B.B., Yamada, E.S., Kremers, J., Hunt, D.M., Martin, P.R., Gomes, F.L. Vis. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Accelerated evolution of the electron transport chain in anthropoid primates. Grossman, L.I., Wildman, D.E., Schmidt, T.R., Goodman, M. Trends Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Adaptive evolution of cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII in anthropoid primates. Goldberg, A., Wildman, D.E., Schmidt, T.R., Huttemann, M., Goodman, M., Weiss, M.L., Grossman, L.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Primate postcrania from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar. Ciochon, R.L., Gingerich, P.D., Gunnell, G.F., Simons, E.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Emergence of the ZNF91 Krüppel-associated box-containing zinc finger gene family in the last common ancestor of anthropoidea. Bellefroid, E.J., Marine, J.C., Matera, A.G., Bourguignon, C., Desai, T., Healy, K.C., Bray-Ward, P., Martial, J.A., Ihle, J.N., Ward, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Involucrin gene of tarsioids and other primates: alternatives in evolution of the segment of repeats. Djian, P., Green, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. A trinucleotide repeat-associated increase in the level of Alu RNA-binding protein occurred during the same period as the major Alu amplification that accompanied anthropoid evolution. Chang, D.Y., Sasaki-Tozawa, N., Green, L.K., Maraia, R.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The involucrin genes of the white-fronted capuchin and cottontop tamarin: the platyrrhine middle region. Phillips, M., Rice, R.H., Djian, P., Green, H. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Birth of a gene: locus of neuronal BC200 snmRNA in three prosimians and human BC200 pseudogenes as archives of change in the Anthropoidea lineage. Kuryshev, V.Y., Skryabin, B.V., Kremerskothen, J., Jurka, J., Brosius, J. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. An unusual primate locus that attracted two independent Alu insertions and facilitates their transcription. Ludwig, A., Rozhdestvensky, T.S., Kuryshev, V.Y., Schmitz, J., Brosius, J. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Anthropoid cranial base architecture and scaling relationships. McCarthy, R.C. J. Hum. Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Evaluating the "dual selection" hypothesis of canine reduction. Plavcan, J.M., Kelley, J. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Helicoidal plane of dental occlusion. Osborn, J.W. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Relationship between lectin binding properties and the expression of blood group ABH antigens in vascular endothelia and red blood cells from 18 primate species. Ito, N., Nishi, K., Nakajima, M., Okamura, Y., Hirota, T. Histochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. The origin of the primate Mhc-DRB genes and allelic lineages as deduced from the study of prosimians. Figueroa, F., O'hUigin, C., Tichy, H., Klein, J. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. 3,5-disubstituted 1,2,3,4-triazoles, 1 new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Duggan, D.E., Noll, R.M., Baer, J.E., Novello, F.C., Baldwin, J.J. J. Med. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Evolution of anthropoid jaw loading and kinematic patterns. Ravosa, M.J., Vinyard, C.J., Gagnon, M., Islam, S.A. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Vitamin C biosynthesis in prosimians: evidence for the anthropoid affinity of Tarsius. Pollock, J.I., Mullin, R.J. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Fermenting fruit and the historical ecology of ethanol ingestion: is alcoholism in modern humans an evolutionary hangover? Dudley, R. Addiction (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. The SRP9/14 subunit of the human signal recognition particle binds to a variety of Alu-like RNAs and with higher affinity than its mouse homolog. Bovia, F., Wolff, N., Ryser, S., Strub, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Evolution of MHC-G in primates: a different kind of molecule for each group of species. Arnaiz-Villena, A., Morales, P., Gomez-Casado, E., Castro, M.J., Varela, P., Rojo-Amigo, R., Martinez-Laso, J. J. Reprod. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Sequence, organization, and evolution of Rh50 glycoprotein genes in nonhuman primates. Huang, C.H., Liu, Z., Apoil, P.A., Blancher, A. J. Mol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. A reassessment of mammalian alpha A-crystallin sequences using DNA sequencing: implications for anthropoid affinities of tarsier. Jaworski, C.J. J. Mol. Evol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Progressive inactivation of the haploid expressed gene for the sperm-specific endozepine-like peptide (ELP) through primate evolution. Ivell, R., Pusch, W., Balvers, M., Valentin, M., Walther, N., Weinbauer, G. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
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