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MeSH Review

Skull Base

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Disease relevance of Skull Base

  • PURPOSE: Large skull-base meningiomas are difficult to treat due to their proximity or adherence to critical structures [1].
  • During subsequent stages of skeletogenesis, the balance between proliferation and differentiation was shifted towards differentiation, leading to premature loss of growth, synostosis in certain sutures of the skull base and in the coronal suture of the skull vault, with dwarfism in the long bones and axial skeleton [2].
  • High-dose gadodiamide injection may show a specific dynamic pattern for glomus tumors, allowing differentiation from other tumors of the middle and posterior skull base [3].
  • Cranial imaging in autosomal recessive osteopetrosis. Part II. Skull base and brain [4].
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationships between brain and skull base growth in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) compared with healthy control subjects using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for morphometric analysis [5].

High impact information on Skull Base

  • Immunohistochemical analysis of the cranial base in transgenic embryos showed reduced staining for collagen type X and persistent expression of Sox9 in chondrocytes [6].
  • Neuroimaging revealed a midline nasopharyngeal tumor extending through the skull base to the clivus [7].
  • They differ from their NF2-related counterparts in that they are more often of the meningothelial subtype and are located preferentially in the anterior skull base [8].
  • A standard workup (including imaging of the brain, base of skull, and mandible, and CSF analysis) led to the diagnosis of a metastatic etiology in 89% of the patients [9].
  • Pterygoid process sclerosis was the sole skull base abnormality in 36% (11 of 31) of the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Skull Base


Biological context of Skull Base

  • CONCLUSIONS: BF and skull base abnormalities, especially in association with neurodevelopmental midline abnormalities, may be distinguishing MRI features for a genetic subtype of schizophrenia involving a deletion on chromosome 22 [16].
  • Colocalisation of versican and aggrecan was also seen in the cranial base cartilage at d 14 of gestation [17].
  • The patients (n = 17; mean age 62.5 +/- 1.7 years) were monitored as follows: conjunctival oxygen tension (PcjO2); internal jugular venous oxygen tension at the skull base level (PcijvO2); arterial blood pressure; arterial and internal jugular venous blood gases; acid-base data and lactate, pyruvate levels; end-tidal CO2 concentration [18].
  • If partial synostosis represents a continuum of the craniosynostotic phenotype, then the craniosynostosis may be seen as the primary deformity in this model and the cranial base abnormalaties as secondary, deformational changes [19].
  • Advantages of MRI over CT include 1) the delineation of tumor infiltrations of the longus colli muscles, rectus capitus muscles, and muscles of mastication, 2) demonstration of tumor extensions into the skull base or parapharyngeal spaces, and 3) demonstration of both normal and pathologic cranial nerves [20].

Anatomical context of Skull Base

  • CT scans of the nasopharynx and the base of skull were performed in 54 patients with histologically proven NPC [21].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perhaps, it is better to down-stage single site of skull base abnormality from T3 to T2, and involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely from T4 to T3, meanwhile, </=3cm of N2 down-stage to N1, >3cm of N1 up-stage to N2 [22].
  • Thirteen patients with large anterior skull base defects caused by tumor invasion or traumatic injury involving the cribriform plate, orbital roof, and planum sphenoidale were included in the study [23].
  • Sutures of both the calvaria and skull base were most accurately identified in axial and coronal high-resolution thin-section scans when bone window algorithms were used [24].
  • Coordinates for 10 landmarks defining the midline basicranium and midface were acquired and areas of ossification in the midline basioccipital, basisphenoid, and presphenoid cartilages were measured as percentages of overall cranial base area [25].

Associations of Skull Base with chemical compounds

  • Findings for both samples showed retroflexion, or flattening, of the cranial base and coronal petrous reorientation as well as considerable increases in absolute and relative brain sizes [26].
  • CONCLUSION: Proton RT for children with aggressively recurring tumors after major skull base surgery can offer a considerable prospect of tumor control and survival [27].
  • Cephalometric superimpositions on the cranial base and tantalum implants confirmed these quantitative observations [28].
  • Anatomic reconstruction of the posterolateral cranial base with titanium micromesh for combined transpetrosal approach: technical note [29].
  • Comparison of the means for occlusal groups showed a trend from class II to class III as cranial base dimensions and angle decreased [30].

Gene context of Skull Base


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Skull Base


  1. High efficacy of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of large base-of-skull meningiomas: long-term results. Debus, J., Wuendrich, M., Pirzkall, A., Hoess, A., Schlegel, W., Zuna, I., Engenhart-Cabillic, R., Wannenmacher, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. The IIIc alternative of Fgfr2 is a positive regulator of bone formation. Eswarakumar, V.P., Monsonego-Ornan, E., Pines, M., Antonopoulou, I., Morriss-Kay, G.M., Lonai, P. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Skull base tumors: gadodiamide injection--enhanced MR imaging--drop-out effect in the early enhancement pattern of paragangliomas versus different tumors. Vogl, T.J., Mack, M.G., Juergens, M., Bergman, C., Grevers, G., Jacobsen, T.F., Lissner, J., Felix, R. Radiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Cranial imaging in autosomal recessive osteopetrosis. Part II. Skull base and brain. Elster, A.D., Theros, E.G., Key, L.L., Chen, M.Y. Radiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Brain morphometric analysis in neurofibromatosis 1. DiMario, F.J., Ramsby, G.R., Burleson, J.A. Arch. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Constitutive activation of MEK1 in chondrocytes causes Stat1-independent achondroplasia-like dwarfism and rescues the Fgfr3-deficient mouse phenotype. Murakami, S., Balmes, G., McKinney, S., Zhang, Z., Givol, D., de Crombrugghe, B. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. February 2004: a 44-year-old man with a 2-year history of epistaxis. Di Patre, P.L., Szalay, I., Delavelle, J. Brain Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Lack of genetic and epigenetic changes in meningiomas without NF2 loss. van Tilborg, A.A., Morolli, B., Giphart-Gassler, M., de Vries, A., van Geenen, D.A., Lurkin, I., Kros, J.M., Zwarthoff, E.C. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Numb chin syndrome in cancer patients: etiology, response to treatment, and prognostic significance. Lossos, A., Siegal, T. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Sclerosis of the pterygoid process in untreated patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Shatzkes, D.R., Meltzer, D.E., Lee, J.A., Babb, J.S., Sanfilippo, N.J., Holliday, R.A. Radiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Charged particle irradiation of chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull and cervical spine: the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory experience. Berson, A.M., Castro, J.R., Petti, P., Phillips, T.L., Gauger, G.E., Gutin, P., Collier, J.M., Henderson, S.D., Baken, K. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Brachytherapy: a viable alternative in the management of basal meningiomas. Kumar, P.P., Patil, A.A., Leibrock, L.G., Chu, W.K., Syh, J., McCaul, G.F., Reeves, M.A. Neurosurgery (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Bilateral cholesterol granuloma of the skull base: case report and review of the literature. Gamache, F.W., McLure, T., Deck, M., Linstrom, C. Neurosurgery (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. CSF rhinorrhoea following treatment with dopamine agonists for massive invasive prolactinomas. Leong, K.S., Foy, P.M., Swift, A.C., Atkin, S.L., Hadden, D.R., MacFarlane, I.A. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Clinical utility of somatostatin receptor scintigraphic imaging (octreoscan) in esthesioneuroblastoma: a case study and survey of somatostatin receptor subtype expression. Rostomily, R.C., Elias, M., Deng, M., Elias, P., Born, D.E., Muballe, D., Silbergeld, D.L., Futran, N., Weymuller, E.A., Mankoff, D.A., Eary, J. Head & neck. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Qualitative MRI findings in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia. Chow, E.W., Mikulis, D.J., Zipursky, R.B., Scutt, L.E., Weksberg, R., Bassett, A.S. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Histochemical localisation of versican, aggrecan and hyaluronan in the developing condylar cartilage of the fetal rat mandible. Shibata, S., Fukada, K., Suzuki, S., Ogawa, T., Yamashita, Y. J. Anat. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Continuous conjunctival oxygen tension (PcjO2) monitoring for assessment of cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during carotid artery surgery. Haljamäe, H., Frid, I., Holm, J., Holm, S. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Postnatal changes in the cranial base in rabbits with congenital coronal suture synostosis. Smith, T.D., Mooney, M.P., Burrows, A.M., Losken, H.W., Siegel, M.I. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the nasopharynx and skull base. Lufkin, R., Hanafee, W. Acta radiologica. Supplementum. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Value of computed tomography in staging the primary lesion (T-staging) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): an analysis of 54 patients with special reference to the parapharyngeal space. Yu, Z.H., Xu, G.Z., Huang, Y.R., Hu, Y.H., Su, X.G., Gu, X.Z. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma investigated by magnetic resonance imaging. Lu, J.C., Wei, B.Q., Chen, W.Z., Qian, P.D., Zhang, Y.Q., Wei, Q., Cha, W.W., Li, F., Ni, M. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Use of titanium mesh for reconstruction of large anterior cranial base defects. Badie, B., Preston, J.K., Hartig, G.K. J. Neurosurg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Computerized tomography of cranial sutures. Part 1: Comparison of suture anatomy in children and adults. Furuya, Y., Edwards, M.S., Alpers, C.E., Tress, B.M., Ousterhout, D.K., Norman, D. J. Neurosurg. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Ossification and midline shape changes of the human fetal cranial base. Jeffery, N., Spoor, F. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Brain expansion and comparative prenatal ontogeny of the non-hominoid primate cranial base. Jeffery, N. J. Hum. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Proton radiotherapy in management of pediatric base of skull tumors. Hug, E.B., Sweeney, R.A., Nurre, P.M., Holloway, K.C., Slater, J.D., Munzenrider, J.E. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Mandibulofacial adaptations in a juvenile animal model of temporomandibular joint arthritis. Tavakkoli-Jou, M., Miller, A.J., Kapila, S. J. Dent. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Anatomic reconstruction of the posterolateral cranial base with titanium micromesh for combined transpetrosal approach: technical note. Zimmerman, M., Seifert, V. Neurosurgery (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Cranial base and jaw relationship. Kerr, W.J., Adams, C.P. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. From genotype to phenotype: the differential expression of FGF, FGFR, and TGFbeta genes characterizes human cranioskeletal development and reflects clinical presentation in FGFR syndromes. Britto, J.A., Evans, R.D., Hayward, R.D., Jones, B.M. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. BMP4 promotes chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy in the endochondral cranial base. Shum, L., Wang, X., Kane, A.A., Nuckolls, G.H. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Developmentally regulated expression of Shh and Ihh in the developing mouse cranial base: comparison with Sox9 expression. Nie, X., Luukko, K., Kvinnsland, I.H., Kettunen, P. The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Computed tomography findings of bony regeneration after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with skull base destruction: implications for local control. Fang, F.M., Leung, S.W., Wang, C.J., Su, C.Y., Lui, C.C., Chen, H.C., Sun, M., Lin, T.M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Radiosurgery for skull base malignancies and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cmelak, A.J., Cox, R.S., Adler, J.R., Fee, W.E., Goffinet, D.R. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of tau proteins and tubulin in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, chordoma, and other chondroid tumors. Hu, B., McPhaul, L., Cornford, M., Gaal, K., Mirra, J., French, S.W. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy for chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Debus, J., Schulz-Ertner, D., Schad, L., Essig, M., Rhein, B., Thillmann, C.O., Wannenmacher, M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Brachytherapy of recurrent tumors of the skull base and spine with iodine-125 sources. Gutin, P.H., Leibel, S.A., Hosobuchi, Y., Crumley, R.L., Edwards, M.S., Wilson, C.B., Lamb, S., Weaver, K.A. Neurosurgery (1987) [Pubmed]
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