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Chemical Compound Review

Euhypnos     9-chloro-4-hydroxy-2-methyl- 6-phenyl-2,5...

Synonyms: Levanxol, Nocturne, Normison, Normitab, Remestan, ...
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Disease relevance of Pronervon T


Psychiatry related information on Pronervon T


High impact information on Pronervon T

  • Perinatal mortality due to interaction of diphenhydramine and temazepam [11].
  • Left posterior STG and the left planum temporale, but not other regions of interest, were specifically and positively correlated (r>0.5) with left temporal P300 voltage in patients with schizophrenia but not in patients with affective psychosis or in control subjects [12].
  • Sex-specific effects were primarily evident in the cortex, particularly in the frontomedial cortex, basal forebrain, cingulate and paracingulate gyri, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and planum temporale [13].
  • BACKGROUND: The planum temporale, located on the posterior and superior surface of the temporal lobe, is a brain region thought to be a biological substrate of language and possibly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia [14].
  • This is yet another example of anomalous expression of cerebral asymmetry in dyslexia similar to that of the planum temporale, which in our view reflects abnormality in circuits involved in reading [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pronervon T


Biological context of Pronervon T

  • Effects of intravenous temazepam. II. A study of the long-term reproducibility of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and concentration-effect parameters [20].
  • Effects of intravenous temazepam. I. Saccadic eye movements and electroencephalogram after fast and slow infusion to pseudo steady state [21].
  • Differences in protein binding of temazepam did not account for the approximate fourfold variability in individual sensitivities to temazepam [22].
  • A comparison of the sensitivities of adaptive tracking, eye movement analysis and visual analog lines to the effects of incremental doses of temazepam in healthy volunteers [23].
  • The effects of single oral doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg temazepam were evaluated with the adaptive tracking test, analysis of smooth-pursuit and saccadic eye movements, and visual analog lines in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experiment with 12 healthy volunteers [23].

Anatomical context of Pronervon T

  • 5. NGFR mRNA is expressed in the primordia of the ampullary cristae (E5-7) and possibly the anlage of the utricle; label transiently concentrates in the planum semilunatum of the cristae ampullares and in superior portions of the semicircular canals at E9, but is not seen in differentiating hair cells [24].
  • In contrast, the imagery condition elicited bilateral hemodynamic responses only in the secondary auditory cortex (including the planum temporale) [25].
  • Lesions involved the superior temporal gyrus (including the planum temporale), the inferior parietal lobe and the parietal operculum; this area appears to constitute the human auditory cortical processing area [26].
  • Leftward occipital and rightward frontal lobe asymmetry (brain torque) and leftward planum temporale asymmetry have been consistently reported in postmortem and in vivo neuroimaging studies of the human brain [27].
  • Morphology of the planum temporale and corpus callosum in left handers with evidence of left and right hemisphere speech representation [28].

Associations of Pronervon T with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Pronervon T

  • CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation [34].
  • 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam [34].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results have shown that temazepam inhibits the pituitary-adrenal responses to human CRH in normal subjects, but not in those with Cushing's syndrome [35].
  • DESIGN: We have investigated the effects of 20 mg oral temazepam or placebo on serum cortisol and plasma ACTH after the administration of 100 micrograms i.v. human CRH in 12 healthy volunteers and in 9 patients with Cushing's syndrome [35].
  • Adult male Wistar rats were intravenously administered with temazepam (0.5, 1, and 3 mg/kg body weight) and plasma concentrations of corticotropin (ACTH) and vasopressin (AVP) were measured in blood samples collected via chronically implanted jugular venous catheters [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pronervon T

  • To investigate further the role of planum temporale abnormalities in schizophrenia, we measured gray matter volume underlying the planum temporale from high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging techniques [14].
  • A comparison of fMRI signals between trials in which participants successfully identified both vowels as opposed to when only one of the two vowels was recognized revealed enhanced activity in left thalamus, Heschl's gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and the planum temporale [36].
  • Finally a meta-analysis of MRI measurements of the distribution of planum anatomy in normal subjects is presented [37].
  • METHODS: Hypnograms from 21 patients with primary insomnia were collected during a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study of 20 mg temazepam [38].
  • Venous plasma concentrations of temazepam were measured by HPLC [21].


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  3. Dyslexia and brain morphology. Hynd, G.W., Semrud-Clikeman, M. Psychological bulletin. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Three-dimensional cortical morphometry of the planum temporale in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Jacobsen, L.K., Giedd, J.N., Tanrikut, C., Brady, D.R., Donohue, B.C., Hamburger, S.D., Kumra, S., Alaghband-Rad, J., Rumsey, J.M., Rapoport, J.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
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  10. Specific temporoparietal gyral atrophy reflects the pattern of language dissolution in Alzheimer's disease. Harasty, J.A., Halliday, G.M., Kril, J.J., Code, C. Brain (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Perinatal mortality due to interaction of diphenhydramine and temazepam. Kargas, G.A., Kargas, S.A., Bruyere, H.J., Gilbert, E.F., Opitz, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Association between smaller left posterior superior temporal gyrus volume on magnetic resonance imaging and smaller left temporal P300 amplitude in first-episode schizophrenia. McCarley, R.W., Salisbury, D.F., Hirayasu, Y., Yurgelun-Todd, D.A., Tohen, M., Zarate, C., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F.A., Shenton, M.E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Impact of normal sexual dimorphisms on sex differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Goldstein, J.M., Seidman, L.J., O'Brien, L.M., Horton, N.J., Kennedy, D.N., Makris, N., Caviness, V.S., Faraone, S.V., Tsuang, M.T. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Left planum temporale volume reduction in schizophrenia. Kwon, J.S., McCarley, R.W., Hirayasu, Y., Anderson, J.E., Fischer, I.A., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F.A., Shenton, M.E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Neuronal asymmetries in primary visual cortex of dyslexic and nondyslexic brains. Jenner, A.R., Rosen, G.D., Galaburda, A.M. Ann. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparative amnestic effects of benzodiazepine hypnotic agents. Scharf, M.B., Fletcher, K., Graham, J.P. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Rebound insomnia: a critical review. Gillin, J.C., Spinweber, C.L., Johnson, L.C. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Acute pharmacological effects of temazepam, diphenhydramine, and valerian in healthy elderly subjects. Glass, J.R., Sproule, B.A., Herrmann, N., Streiner, D., Busto, U.E. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Nocturnal myoclonus: treatment efficacy of clonazepam and temazepam. Mitler, M.M., Browman, C.P., Menn, S.J., Gujavarty, K., Timms, R.M. Sleep. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of intravenous temazepam. II. A study of the long-term reproducibility of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and concentration-effect parameters. van Steveninck, A.L., Schoemaker, H.C., den Hartigh, J., Pieters, M.S., Breimer, D.D., Cohen, A.F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of intravenous temazepam. I. Saccadic eye movements and electroencephalogram after fast and slow infusion to pseudo steady state. van Steveninck, A.L., Schoemaker, H.C., den Hartigh, J., Rijnkels, J., Pieters, M.S., Breimer, D.D., Cohen, A.F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of temazepam on saccadic eye movements: concentration-effect relationships in individual volunteers. van Steveninck, A.L., Verver, S., Schoemaker, H.C., Pieters, M.S., Kroon, R., Breimer, D.D., Cohen, A.F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. A comparison of the sensitivities of adaptive tracking, eye movement analysis and visual analog lines to the effects of incremental doses of temazepam in healthy volunteers. van Steveninck, A.L., Schoemaker, H.C., Pieters, M.S., Kroon, R., Breimer, D.D., Cohen, A.F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors in the developing inner ear of chick and rat. von Bartheld, C.S., Patterson, S.L., Heuer, J.G., Wheeler, E.F., Bothwell, M., Rubel, E.W. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Scanning silence: mental imagery of complex sounds. Bunzeck, N., Wuestenberg, T., Lutz, K., Heinze, H.J., Jancke, L. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Non-verbal environmental sound recognition after unilateral hemispheric stroke. Schnider, A., Benson, D.F., Alexander, D.N., Schnider-Klaus, A. Brain (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Automatic analysis of cerebral asymmetry: an exploratory study of the relationship between brain torque and planum temporale asymmetry. Barrick, T.R., Mackay, C.E., Prima, S., Maes, F., Vandermeulen, D., Crow, T.J., Roberts, N. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Morphology of the planum temporale and corpus callosum in left handers with evidence of left and right hemisphere speech representation. Moffat, S.D., Hampson, E., Lee, D.H. Brain (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Cytochrome P450IIIA enzymes in rat liver microsomes: involvement in C3-hydroxylation of diazepam and nordazepam but not N-dealkylation of diazepam and temazepam. Reilly, P.E., Thompson, D.A., Mason, S.R., Hooper, W.D. Mol. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Kinetics of five benzodiazepine hypnotics in healthy subjects. Jochemsen, R., van Boxtel, C.J., Hermans, J., Breimer, D.D. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. The effect of antipyrine and rifampin on the metabolism of diazepam. Ohnhaus, E.E., Brockmeyer, N., Dylewicz, P., Habicht, H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Temazepam triggers the release of vasopressin into the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: novel insight into benzodiazepine action on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system activity during stress. Welt, T., Engelmann, M., Renner, U., Erhardt, A., M??ller, M.B., Landgraf, R., Holsboer, F., Keck, M.E. Neuropsychopharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
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  34. Human liver microsomal diazepam metabolism using cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s: role of CYP2B6, 2C19 and the 3A subfamily. Ono, S., Hatanaka, T., Miyazawa, S., Tsutsui, M., Aoyama, T., Gonzalez, F.J., Satoh, T. Xenobiotica (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Benzodiazepines attenuate the pituitary-adrenal responses to corticotrophin-releasing hormone in healthy volunteers, but not in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Korbonits, M., Trainer, P.J., Edwards, R., Besser, G.M., Grossman, A.B. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Left thalamo-cortical network implicated in successful speech separation and identification. Alain, C., Reinke, K., McDonald, K.L., Chau, W., Tam, F., Pacurar, A., Graham, S. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
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  38. A pharmacodynamic Markov mixed-effects model for the effect of temazepam on sleep. Karlsson, M.O., Schoemaker, R.C., Kemp, B., Cohen, A.F., van Gerven, J.M., Tuk, B., Peck, C.C., Danhof, M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
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