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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Saliva


High impact information on Saliva

  • Polymorphic PRPs Pe, PmF, PmS, and Ps were found to be missing from the salivas [5].
  • ABP subunits appear to dimerize randomly and a model is presented demonstrating the origin of six ABP dimers in the salivas of AbpaaAbpga/AbpabAbpgb heterozygous mice [6].
  • An ELISA was developed to determine the relative quantity of MUC7 in the glandular salivas: mean values of approximately 220, 980, and 100 microg mucin per mL were found in submandibular, sublingual, and palatine saliva, respectively [7].
  • Salivas with high adherence scores contained significantly more protein and lactoferrin, and significantly less peroxidase, than salivas with low adherence scores [8].
  • By the end of the first year, most salivas contained IgA1 and IgA2 antibody to S. mitis antigens [9].

Biological context of Saliva


Associations of Saliva with chemical compounds

  • Cotinine (mean +/- SEM) was detected in all 26 saliva (392 +/- 74 ng/ml) and 27 urine (4264 +/- 508 ng/mg creatinine; 2566 +/- 364 ng/ml) samples from smoking parents, but in only two of 36 salivas and one of 37 urines from nonsmokers (P less than 0.001) [12].
  • Similarly, mean cotinine levels in 30 salivas (4.67 +/- 1.10 ng/ml) and 33 urines (35.5 +/- 8.8 ng/mg creatinine; 25.3 +/- 8.1 ng/ml) from passively exposed children were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than in fluids of 36 unexposed children [12].
  • GDP-fucose: N-acetyl-glucosaminide alpha(1----4)-L-fucosyltransferase was demonstrated to be present in salivas from both group I and group II [13].
  • 4. RESULTS: Yeast colonization was found in 78% of the high acetaldehyde-producing salivas, compared with 47% in the low acetaldehyde-producing salivas (p = 0.026) [14].
  • METHODS: Medical diagnoses, menopausal status, medication utilization, and 2% citric acid stimulated parotid salivas were collected from 396 women, aged 21 to 96 years, from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health) over a 17-year span by three investigators [15].

Gene context of Saliva

  • The stimulated and unstimulated salivas from aged subjects showed significant reductions in concentrations of both MG1 and MG2, as quantitated in mucin dye-binding units [16].
  • High activity of t-PA inhibitor was demonstrated in all parotid salivas, and the mean inhibitory effect on t-PA was 13.2 IU t-PA quenched per millilitre [17].
  • Fibrinolytic activity was demonstrated in all salivas but one; it was completely quenched by antibodies against t-PA, but antibodies against urokinase-like plasminogen activator had no effect [18].
  • The refined antibodies proved to have a reaction pattern with salivas that is the same as that previously reported for anti-Lec sera [19].
  • Parotid salivas are characterized by intensely staining amylase and proline-rich protein bands, but contain minute amounts of cystatins, lysozyme and the extra-parotid glycoprotein [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Saliva


  1. Formation of calcium phosphates in saliva and dental plaque. Tannenbaum, P.J., Posner, A.S., Mandel, I.D. J. Dent. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Aggregation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by human salivary secretions. Bergey, E.J., Cho, M.I., Hammarskjöld, M.L., Rekosh, D., Levine, M.J., Blumberg, B.M., Epstein, L.G. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Anti-carbohydrate precipitins and haemagglutinins in haemolymph from Tridacna maxima (Röding). Uhlenbruck, G., Baldo, B.A., Steinhausen, G. Zeitschrift für Immunitätsforschung, experimentelle und klinische Immunologie. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure and biological functions of human IgD. XIV. The development of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of IgD in human sera and secretions. Leslie, G.A., Teramura, G. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. PRB2/1 fusion gene: a product of unequal and homologous crossing-over between proline-rich protein (PRP) genes PRB1 and PRB2. Azen, E.A., O'Connell, P., Kim, H.S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. The genes for mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) subunits alpha and gamma are located on chromosome 7. Dlouhy, S.R., Taylor, B.A., Karn, R.C. Genetics (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Detection and quantification of MUC7 in submandibular, sublingual, palatine, and labial saliva by anti-peptide antiserum. Bolscher, J.G., Groenink, J., van der Kwaak, J.S., van den Keijbus, P.A., van 't Hof, W., Veerman, E.C., Nieuw Amerongen, A.V. J. Dent. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Cumulative correlations of lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase, S-IgA, amylase, and total protein concentrations with adherence of oral viridans streptococci to microplates coated with human saliva. Rudney, J.D., Hickey, K.L., Ji, Z. J. Dent. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Emergence of immune competence in saliva. Smith, D.J., Taubman, M.A. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. A novel lectin in rabbit serum binds H type 1, H type 2 and N-acetyl lactosamine structures. Hosomi, O., Takeya, A., Yazawa, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Human salivary proline-rich (Pr) proteins: a posttranslational derivation of the phenotypes. Karn, R.C., Friedman, R.D., Merritt, A.D. Biochem. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Monoclonal antibody ELISA for cotinine in saliva and urine of active and passive smokers. Langone, J.J., Cook, G., Bjercke, R.J., Lifschitz, M.H. J. Immunol. Methods (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. The presence of CA19-9 in serum and saliva from Lewis blood-group negative cancer patients. Yazawa, S., Asao, T., Izawa, H., Miyamoto, Y., Matta, K.L. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of yeasts in the salivary acetaldehyde production from ethanol among risk groups for ethanol-associated oral cavity cancer. Tillonen, J., Homann, N., Rautio, M., Jousimies-Somer, H., Salaspuro, M. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Longitudinal influence of age, menopause, hormone replacement therapy, and other medications on parotid flow rates in healthy women. Ghezzi, E.M., Wagner-Lange, L.A., Schork, M.A., Metter, E.J., Baum, B.J., Streckfus, C.F., Ship, J.A. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Age-related changes in mucins from human whole saliva. Denny, P.C., Denny, P.A., Klauser, D.K., Hong, S.H., Navazesh, M., Tabak, L.A. J. Dent. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Presence of a fast-acting specific inhibitor of plasminogen activator in human parotid saliva. Kjaeldgaard, A., Kjaeldgaard, M., Gaffney, P. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunological characterization of plasminogen activators in human parotid saliva. Kjaeldgaard, M., Kjaeldgaard, A. Arch. Oral Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Purification of anti-Lec antibodies with specificity for beta DGal(1 replaced by 3)beta DGlcNAcO- using a synthetic immunoadsorbent. Le Pendu, J., Lemieux, R.U., Oriol, R. Vox Sang. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Human glandular salivas: their separate collection and analysis. Veerman, E.C., van den Keybus, P.A., Vissink, A., Nieuw Amerongen, A.V. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. A study of the relationship between trace elements in saliva and dental caries in children. Duggal, M.S., Chawla, H.S., Curzon, M.E. Arch. Oral Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased mucin levels in submandibular saliva from mice following repeated isoproterenol treatment. Denny, P.A., Hong, S.H., Klauser, D.K., Denny, P.C. Arch. Oral Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification and isolation of Lewis blood group antigens from human saliva using monoclonal antibodies. Pak, K.Y., Blaszczyk, M., Herlyn, M., Steplewski, Z., Koprowski, H. Hybridoma (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. The effects of streptozotocin diabetes on salivary-mediated bacterial aggregation and adherence. Anderson, L.C., Yang, S.C., Xie, H., Lamont, R.J. Arch. Oral Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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