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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Plaque Assay

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Disease relevance of Plaque Assay

  • This has been achieved using a plaque assay technique to detect the same p53 mutation, present throughout a tumor specimen, in a small proportion of cells in an adjacent squamous metaplasia [1].
  • Analysis of prolactin and growth hormone production in the MtT/F4 transplantable pituitary tumor by the reverse hemolytic plaque assay [2].
  • We have combined a novel technique based on the display of cDNA libraries on the capsid of bacteriophage lambda and an efficient plaque assay to reveal phage displaying ligands that are enriched after only a couple of affinity purification steps [3].
  • RNA transcripts from a cDNA clone of human rhinovirus 14 mutated at asparagine 68, one of the residues in the maturation cleavage site, generated normal yields of 150S particles which were noninfectious in the plaque assay because they were unable to initiate a second cycle of infection [4].
  • Incubation of nontransfected cells with soluble recombinant FN2 increased IHNV infection, as measured by plaque assay [5].

High impact information on Plaque Assay

  • We found that the addition of physiological concentrations of estradiol (780-2,600 pmol/liter) to PWM cultures significantly increased the accumulation of immunoglobulin M-containing and -secreting cells detected by immunofluorescence and/or by the reversed protein-A plaque assay [6].
  • The present communication describes the production of rabbit antisera against culture supernates from Con A-activated spleen cells and their use in a plaque assay for mitogen-activated T cells [7].
  • Renin release by isolated, single microvascular cells (with or without forskolin) was assessed using the reverse hemolytic plaque assay [8].
  • A plaque assay that detects human mononuclear blood cells producing immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibody to sheep erythrocytes was investigated for its usefulness in studying B-cell activation and regulation in 24 patients with humoral immunodeficiency [9].
  • Both low- and high-passage cells released the same level of murine leukemia virus, as detected by the XC plaque assay [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Plaque Assay


Biological context of Plaque Assay

  • In marked contrast, the ribonucleoside of 2,5,6-trichlorobenzimidazole (TCRB) was active against HCMV (IC50 = 2.9 microM, plaque assay; IC90 = 1.4 microM, yield assay) but only weakly active against HSV-1 (IC50 = 102 microM, plaque assay) [16].
  • Monodispersed anterior pituitary cells from 1-day-old pups were cultured for 6 days with aqueous extracts of milk from early (days 2, 3, and 4) and late (days 15 and 16) lactation and then subjected to reverse hemolytic plaque assays for PRL and GH release [17].
  • This was accomplished by measuring PRL release with a reverse hemolytic plaque assay and PRL gene expression with a DNA probe complementary to PRL mRNA [18].
  • The modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was shown to detect even a single CHO-K1 cell that was changed to produce mature ET-1 by transfection [19].
  • Sewage-isolated, protamine-precipitated reoviruses were also used in conjunction with MDBK cells in a comparative evaluation of immunofluorescent cell count and plaque assay procedures [20].

Anatomical context of Plaque Assay


Associations of Plaque Assay with chemical compounds

  • The antibody as well as the complementary peptide to LHRH also suppressed LHRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone release in a quantitative reverse hemolytic plaque assay, presumably by binding to the LHRH receptor and by binding LHRH, respectively [26].
  • TK- recombinants could be selected by a plaque assay on TK- cells in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine and distinguished from spontaneous TK- mutants by the addition of a beta-gal indicator to the agarose overlay [27].
  • Similarly, as little as attograms/ml concentrations of the disulfide vitalethine stimulate immunological responses of murine splenocytes toward sheep RBC in a hemolytic plaque assay [28].
  • Anti-immunoglobulin added to the plaque assay abrogated the appearance of plaques, but the addition of LPS had no effect [29].
  • Insulin secretion from single beta-cells to 16.5 mmol/l glucose examined by reverse hemolytic plaque assay was nearly ablated if UCP-2 was overexpressed [30].

Gene context of Plaque Assay

  • We have applied reverse hemolytic plaque assays to monitor the secretions of individual fetal human pituitary cells to determine if any of these cells secrete both hPRL and hGH [31].
  • Effects of interferon and MCP-1 on HCMV replication in HRPE cells were evaluated by plaque assays [32].
  • The quantity of GH released (as assessed by both RIA and reverse hemolytic plaque assay) under basal and stimulated conditions did not differ among TH-hGH and WT pituitary cell cultures [33].
  • Using reverse hemolytic plaque assay (RHPA), we have compared the effects of human GHRH and GHRP-6 on GH release from the dispersed individual cells of rat anterior pituitary [34].
  • The intracellular concentration of mPL-II, the number of cells that released mPL-II as assessed by reverse haemolytic plaque assay, and steady-state levels of mPL-II mRNA as assessed by Northern analysis were also reduced by hTNF-alpha treatment [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plaque Assay


  1. Clonal evolution of lung tumors. Chung, G.T., Sundaresan, V., Hasleton, P., Rudd, R., Taylor, R., Rabbitts, P.H. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis of prolactin and growth hormone production in the MtT/F4 transplantable pituitary tumor by the reverse hemolytic plaque assay. Lloyd, R.V. Am. J. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Selection of ligands by panning of domain libraries displayed on phage lambda reveals new potential partners of synaptojanin 1. Zucconi, A., Dente, L., Santonico, E., Castagnoli, L., Cesareni, G. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of maturation cleavage in infectivity of picornaviruses: activation of an infectosome. Lee, W.M., Monroe, S.S., Rueckert, R.R. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Novel form of fibronectin from zebrafish mediates infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus infection. Liu, X., Collodi, P. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Sex hormone regulation of in vitro immune response. Estradiol enhances human B cell maturation via inhibition of suppressor T cells in pokeweed mitogen-stimulated cultures. Paavonen, T., Andersson, L.C., Adlercreutz, H. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. A hemolytic plaque assay for activated murine T cells. Primi, D., Lewis, G.K., Goodman, J.W. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Renin release and gene expression in intact rat kidney microvessels and single cells. Everett, A.D., Carey, R.M., Chevalier, R.L., Peach, M.J., Gomez, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Use of a human plaque-forming cell assay to study peripheral blood bursa-equivalent cell activation and excessive suppressor cell activity in humoral immunodeficiency. Herrod, H.G., Buckley, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Properties of RBL-5 leukemia cells cultivated in vitro. Liu, W.T., Rogers, M.J., Law, L.L., Chang, K.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Construction and properties of a mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 with glycoprotein H coding sequences deleted. Forrester, A., Farrell, H., Wilkinson, G., Kaye, J., Davis-Poynter, N., Minson, T. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Heterogeneity of growth hormone (GH) release by individual pituitary adenoma cells from acromegalic patients, as determined by the reverse hemolytic plaque assay: effects of SMS 201-995, GH-releasing hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Hofland, L.J., van Koetsveld, P.M., van Vroonhoven, C.C., Stefanko, S.Z., Lamberts, S.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro evaluation of josamycin, spiramycin, and erythromycin against Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii. Raoult, D., Roussellier, P., Tamalet, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Varicella-zoster virus: isolation and propagation in human melanoma cells at 36 and 32 degrees C. Grose, C., Brunel, P.A. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. In vitro susceptibility of Rickettsia conorii to ciprofloxacin as determined by suppressing lethality in chicken embryos and by plaque assay. Raoult, D., Roussellier, P., Galicher, V., Perez, R., Tamalet, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Design, synthesis, and antiviral activity of certain 2,5,6-trihalo-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)benzimidazoles. Townsend, L.B., Devivar, R.V., Turk, S.R., Nassiri, M.R., Drach, J.C. J. Med. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Stimulation of prolactin cell differentiation in vitro by a milk-borne peptide. Porter, T.E., Frawley, L.S. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Liver tissue from lactating rats produces a factor that stimulates prolactin release and gene expression. Frawley, L.S., Miller, H.A., Betts, J.G., Simpson, M.T. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic transfer of endothelin converting enzyme activity to CHO-K1 cells: detection of positive cells by reverse hemolytic plaque assay. Shiraki, T., Sawamura, T., Ikura, T., Kobayashi, S., Miwa, S., Masaki, T. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Evaluation of cell lines and immunofluorescence and plaque assay procedures for quantifying reoviruses in sewage. Ridinger, D.N., Spendlove, R.S., Barnett, B.B., George, D.B., Roth, J.C. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Anti-Sm autoantibodies in MRL mice: in vitro detection and generation of antibody-forming cells. Cohen, P.L., Eisenberg, R.A. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Cloned allospecific human helper T cell lines induce an MHC-restricted proliferative response by resting B cells. Goldberg, D., Green, A., Gottlieb, A.B., Crow, M.K., Lewison, A., Friedman, S.M. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of tumor necrosis factor and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor on neutrophil degranulation. Richter, J., Andersson, T., Olsson, I. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation of guinea pig macrophages bearing surface C4 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting: correlation between surface C4 antigen and C4 protein secretion. Auerbach, H.S., Lalande, M.E., Latt, S., Colten, H.R. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Development of plasmacytoid cells with Russell bodies in autoimmune "viable motheaten" mice. Shultz, L.D., Coman, D.R., Lyons, B.L., Sidman, C.L., Taylor, S. Am. J. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Antibodies to the binding site of the receptor for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH): generation with a synthetic decapeptide encoded by an RNA complementary to LHRH mRNA. Mulchahey, J.J., Neill, J.D., Dion, L.D., Bost, K.L., Blalock, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Vaccinia virus expression vector: coexpression of beta-galactosidase provides visual screening of recombinant virus plaques. Chakrabarti, S., Brechling, K., Moss, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Vitalethine modulates erythropoiesis and neoplasia. Knight, G.D., Laubscher, K.H., Fore, M.L., Clark, D.A., Scallen, T.J. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Autoreactive antibody-forming cells directed against thymocytes and thymus-derived lymphocytes. McHugh, Y.E., Bonavida, B. J. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. Overexpression of uncoupling protein 2 inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from rat islets. Chan, C.B., MacDonald, P.E., Saleh, M.C., Johns, D.C., Marbàn, E., Wheeler, M.B. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Detection of a potential progenitor cell in the human fetal pituitary that secretes both growth hormone and prolactin. Mulchahey, J.J., Jaffe, R.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential expression of chemokines by human retinal pigment epithelial cells infected with cytomegalovirus. Momma, Y., Nagineni, C.N., Chin, M.S., Srinivasan, K., Detrick, B., Hooks, J.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. The tyrosine hydroxylase-human growth hormone (GH) transgenic mouse as a model of hypothalamic GH deficiency: growth retardation is the result of a selective reduction in somatotrope numbers despite normal somatotrope function. Kineman, R.D., Aleppo, G., Frohman, L.A. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide and GH releasing hormone stimulate GH release from subpopulations of somatotrophs in rats. Mitani, M., Kaji, H., Abe, H., Chihara, K. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Selective inhibition of mouse placental lactogen II secretion by tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Yamaguchi, M., Ogren, L., Barnard, R., Imai, T., Sawada, T., Miyake, A., Talamantes, F. J. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Suppression of T cell-mediated injury in human gut by interleukin 10: role of matrix metalloproteinases. Pender, S.L., Breese, E.J., Günther, U., Howie, D., Wathen, N.C., Schuppan, D., MacDonald, T.T. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Persisting murine cytomegalovirus can reactivate and has unique transcriptional activity in ocular tissue. Kercher, L., Mitchell, B.M. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Maturation cleavage required for infectivity of a nodavirus. Schneemann, A., Zhong, W., Gallagher, T.M., Rueckert, R.R. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Thyroid hormones interact with glucocorticoids to affect somatotroph abundance in chicken embryonic pituitary cells in vitro. Liu, L., Dean, C.E., Porter, T.E. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Actively synthesizing beta-cells secrete preferentially after glucose stimulation. Bosco, D., Meda, P. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
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