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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Hominidae

  • In order to determine whether modern humans and fossil hominids follow these trends, the cranial base angle (measure of basicranial flexion), angle of facial kyphosis, and angle of orbital axis orientation were measured from computed tomography (CT) scans of fossil hominids (Sts 5, MLD 37/38, OH9, Kabwe) and lateral radiographs of 99 extant humans [1].

High impact information on Hominidae

  • Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad [2].
  • The Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia's Afar rift has yielded abundant vertebrate fossils (approximately 10,000), including several hominid taxa [3].
  • Here we show that these earliest hominids derive from relatively wet and wooded environments that were modulated by tectonic, volcanic, climatic and geomorphic processes [3].
  • ESR ages for Krapina hominids [4].
  • Ten years ago a well-preserved skull of an early form of Homo sapiens was unearthed from Pleistocene cave deposits at the Jinniushan site in China. Here we present electron-spin resonance (ESR) and uranium-series dates from five fossil animal teeth collected from the hominid locality [5].

Biological context of Hominidae

  • Here, we show that COX8H is transcribed in most primate clades, but its expression is absent in catarrhines, that is, in Old World monkeys and hominids (apes, including humans), having become a pseudogene in the stem of the catarrhines [6].
  • Although features of the dentition figure prominently in discussions of early hominid phylogeny, remarkably little is known of the developmental basis of the variations in occlusal morphology and dental proportions that are observed among taxa [7].
  • Full-length HERV-K gag genes in hominids displayed a 96-bp deletion compared to those in lower Old World primates [8].
  • However, carbon isotope analyses of tooth enamel from three species of early South African hominids have shown that there was a significant but not dominant contribution of C4 biomass in their diets [9].
  • This implies that the hair keratin phenotype of hominids prior to this date, and after the Pan-Homo divergence some 5.5 million years ago, could have been identical to that of the great apes [10].

Anatomical context of Hominidae

  • The humeral diaphysis indicates a gradual reduction in habitual load levels from Eurasian late archaic, to Early Upper Paleolithic early modern, to Middle Upper Paleolithic early modern hominids, with the Levantine Middle Paleolithic early modern humans being a gracile anomalous outlier [11].
  • Relationship between the mandibular condyle and the occlusal plane during hominid evolution: some of its effects on jaw mechanics [12].
  • Accurate measurements of the absolute and relative size of individual cusps, the arrangement of the primary fissure system and the shape of coronal cross sections of the tooth crown have been used to investigate the pattern of variation in Plio-Pleistocene hominid mandibular molar teeth [13].
  • The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus [14].
  • The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates [15].

Associations of Hominidae with chemical compounds

  • The reversal spans the hominid finds at stratigraphic level TD6 (the Aurora stratum), and these hominid fossils are therefore the oldest in southern Europe [16].
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear CO1 and CO2 sequences revealed that they diverged from modern human mtDNAs early in hominid evolution about 770,000 years before present [17].
  • Serum levels of uric acid (UA), an inhibitor of peroxynitrite- (ONOO-) related chemical reactions, became elevated approximately 30 million years ago in hominid evolution [18].
  • Africa's wild C4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets [9].
  • The paleontological, archaeological, and experimental data suggest that a well-developed flexor pollicis longus muscle functioned initially in the hominid lineage to stabilize the terminal pollical phalanx against loads applied to the thumb's apical pad during the frequent and forceful use of unmodified stones as tools [19].

Gene context of Hominidae

  • Within the Cebidae, Cercopithecidae, and Pongidae (including humans), CCR5 nucleotide similarities were 95.2 to 97.4, 98.0 to 99.5, and 98.3 to 99.3%, respectively [20].
  • Using comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee, and mouse protein sequences, we identified two genes (PRM2 and FOXP2) with significantly enhanced evolutionary rates in the hominid lineage [21].
  • BAGE genes generated by juxtacentromeric reshuffling in the Hominidae lineage are under selective pressure [22].
  • We propose that in earlier hominids and humans, CYP2D6 had increasingly become a vestigial characteristic unconstrained by dietary stressors, as a result of cultural survival strategies [23].
  • Support for this hypothesis stems from associations between mutations in ASPM and primary microcephaly, and from the rapid evolution of ASPM during recent hominid evolution [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hominidae


  1. Basicranial flexion, relative brain size, and facial kyphosis in Homo sapiens and some fossil hominids. Ross, C., Henneberg, M. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Vignaud, P., Duringer, P., Mackaye, H.T., Likius, A., Blondel, C., Boisserie, J.R., De Bonis, L., Eisenmann, V., Etienne, M.E., Geraads, D., Guy, F., Lehmann, T., Lihoreau, F., Lopez-Martinez, N., Mourer-Chauviré, C., Otero, O., Rage, J.C., Schuster, M., Viriot, L., Zazzo, A., Brunet, M. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Geology and palaeontology of the Late Miocene Middle Awash valley, Afar rift, Ethiopia. WoldeGabriel, G., Haile-Selassie, Y., Renne, P.R., Hart, W.K., Ambrose, S.H., Asfaw, B., Heiken, G., White, T. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. ESR ages for Krapina hominids. Rink, W.J., Schwarcz, H.P., Smith, F.H., Radovĉić, n.u.l.l. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Antiquity of Homo sapiens in China. Tiemei, C., Quan, Y., En, W. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Adaptive evolution of cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII in anthropoid primates. Goldberg, A., Wildman, D.E., Schmidt, T.R., Huttemann, M., Goodman, M., Weiss, M.L., Grossman, L.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmental genetics and early hominid craniodental evolution. McCollum, M.A., Sharpe, P.T. Bioessays (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Human endogenous retrovirus K homologous sequences and their coding capacity in Old World primates. Mayer, J., Meese, E., Mueller-Lantzsch, N. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Africa's wild C4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets. Peters, C.R., Vogel, J.C. J. Hum. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Human type I hair keratin pseudogene phihHaA has functional orthologs in the chimpanzee and gorilla: evidence for recent inactivation of the human gene after the Pan-Homo divergence. Winter, H., Langbein, L., Krawczak, M., Cooper, D.N., Jave-Suarez, L.F., Rogers, M.A., Praetzel, S., Heidt, P.J., Schweizer, J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Appendicular robusticity and the paleobiology of modern human emergence. Trinkaus, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Relationship between the mandibular condyle and the occlusal plane during hominid evolution: some of its effects on jaw mechanics. Osborn, J.W. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. II. Mandibular molars--study of cusp areas, fissure pattern and cross sectional shape of the crown. Wood, B.A., Abbott, S.A., Graham, S.H. J. Anat. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia. Semaw, S., Simpson, S.W., Quade, J., Renne, P.R., Butler, R.F., McIntosh, W.C., Levin, N., Dominguez-Rodrigo, M., Rogers, M.J. Nature (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion. Kouprina, N., Pavlicek, A., Mochida, G.H., Solomon, G., Gersch, W., Yoon, Y.H., Collura, R., Ruvolo, M., Barrett, J.C., Woods, C.G., Walsh, C.A., Jurka, J., Larionov, V. PLoS Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Paleomagnetic age for hominid fossils at Atapuerca archaeological site, Spain. Parés, J.M., Pérez-González, A. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Ancient mtDNA sequences in the human nuclear genome: a potential source of errors in identifying pathogenic mutations. Wallace, D.C., Stugard, C., Murdock, D., Schurr, T., Brown, M.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparison of uric acid and ascorbic acid in protection against EAE. Spitsin, S.V., Scott, G.S., Mikheeva, T., Zborek, A., Kean, R.B., Brimer, C.M., Koprowski, H., Hooper, D.C. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. EMG of the human flexor pollicis longus muscle: implications for the evolution of hominid tool use. Hamrick, M.W., Churchill, S.E., Schmitt, D., Hylander, W.L. J. Hum. Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Structure and function of CC-chemokine receptor 5 homologues derived from representative primate species and subspecies of the taxonomic suborders Prosimii and Anthropoidea. Kunstman, K.J., Puffer, B., Korber, B.T., Kuiken, C., Smith, U.R., Kunstman, J., Stanton, J., Agy, M., Shibata, R., Yoder, A.D., Pillai, S., Doms, R.W., Marx, P., Wolinsky, S.M. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Accelerated protein evolution and origins of human-specific features: Foxp2 as an example. Zhang, J., Webb, D.M., Podlaha, O. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. BAGE genes generated by juxtacentromeric reshuffling in the Hominidae lineage are under selective pressure. Ruault, M., Ventura, M., Galtier, N., Brun, M.E., Archidiacono, N., Roizès, G., De Sario, A. Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Comparative evolutionary pharmacogenetics of CYP2D6 in Ngawbe and Embera Amerindians of Panama and Colombia: role of selection versus drift in world populations. Jorge, L.F., Eichelbaum, M., Griese, E.U., Inaba, T., Arias, T.D. Pharmacogenetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel domain suggests a ciliary function for ASPM, a brain size determining gene. Ponting, C.P. Bioinformatics (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Evolution of protamine P1 genes in primates. Retief, J.D., Winkfein, R.J., Dixon, G.H., Adroer, R., Queralt, R., Ballabriga, J., Oliva, R. J. Mol. Evol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Intolerance to volume expansion: a theorized mechanism for the development of preeclampsia. Bernstein, I.M., Meyer, M.C., Osol, G., Ward, K. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1998) [Pubmed]
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