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MeSH Review

National Health Programs

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Disease relevance of National Health Programs


Psychiatry related information on National Health Programs


High impact information on National Health Programs


Chemical compound and disease context of National Health Programs


Biological context of National Health Programs


Anatomical context of National Health Programs

  • The current supply of hGH, which is prepared from pituitary glands collected by pathologists in the National Health Service, is just enough to meet demand, but research conducted on behalf of the Working Party suggests that hGH deficiency is more common than has been thought and that the prevalence may be as high as one in 10 000 [18].

Associations of National Health Programs with chemical compounds


Gene context of National Health Programs

  • NHS at 50. An American view. National Health Service [24].
  • Born in Paris of Swiss parents, he was professor in Leipzig, Germany, before coming to the United States in 1932 as professor of the history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Once in America. Sigerist became deeply involved in medical politics and the campaign for national health insurance [25].
  • The National Health Service is poised to offer at least one cycle of IVF treatment to couples free of charge in the UK, provided that certain clinical criteria are met [26].
  • SETTING: The Oxford Region of the National Health Service, England. SUBJECTS: A cohort comprising all people in the database with MS, and comparison cohorts of people with other diseases [27].
  • In cost-minimisation analyses of these studies from the perspectives of the national health services of five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK), Gem/Cis was associated with lower average treatment-related costs than Vin/Cis, Pac/Cis, and Pac/Carbo, and similar or lower costs than Doc/Cis [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of National Health Programs

  • SETTING: Procedures were performed at the Institute of Maternal and Child Research, School of Medicine, University of Chile and San Borja-Arriarán Clinical Hospital, National Health Service, Santiago, Chile. PATIENT(S): Eight patients (30-38 years) undergoing surgical sterilization or hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions [29].
  • The reasons are largely historical and relate to the structure and function of the National Health Service. This history of minor surgery describes its common occurrence before the NHS, its virtual disappearance after the NHS came about, and later revival by a few enthusiasts [30].
  • The modified T/PPS was based on those complicated appendectomy cases with secondary diagnosis or second operation where a total fee over 37,500 New Taiwan (NT) dollars was paid by National Health Insurance Bureau (NHIB) according to the real cost [31].
  • Data from the Oxford Region were used to study trends in hospital admission rates and demographic profiles of hospital care in the National Health Service in oral and maxillofacial surgery [32].
  • Study quality was assessed using predefined criteria based on parameters developed with the US Preventive Services Task Force and the UK National Health Services Centre. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 32 trials including 4 head-to-head comparisons met inclusion criteria; 14 trials met criteria for meta-analysis [33].


  1. A population study to define the incidence and survival of multiple myeloma in a National Health Service Region in UK. Phekoo, K.J., Schey, S.A., Richards, M.A., Bevan, D.H., Bell, S., Gillett, D., Møller, H. Br. J. Haematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Cost utility and budget impact of third-generation aromatase inhibitors for advanced breast cancer: a literature-based model analysis of costs in the Italian National Health Service. Marchetti, M., Caruggi, M., Colombo, G. Clinical therapeutics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Modelling the economic impact of managing a chronic anal fissure with a proprietary formulation of nitroglycerin (Rectogesic) compared to lateral internal sphincterotomy in the United Kingdom. Christie, A., Guest, J.F. International journal of colorectal disease. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Evidence of prostate cancer screening in a UK region. Gavin, A., McCarron, P., Middleton, R.J., Savage, G., Catney, D., O'Reilly, D., Keane, P.F., Murray, L.J. BJU international. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. A randomized controlled trial of home telecare. Mair, F., Boland, A., Angus, R., Haycox, A., Hibbert, D., Bonner, S., Roberts, C., Capewell, S., Bundred, P. Journal of telemedicine and telecare. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The cost to the United Kingdom National Health Service of managing erectile dysfunction: the impact of sildenafil and prescribing restrictions. Wilson, E.C., McKeen, E.S., Scuffham, P.A., Brown, M.C., Wylie, K., Hackett, G. PharmacoEconomics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Doctors in the NHS. National Health Service. James, M.A. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Mortality study of 18 000 patients treated with omeprazole. Bateman, D.N., Colin-Jones, D., Hartz, S., Langman, M., Logan, R.F., Mant, J., Murphy, M., Paterson, K.R., Rowsell, R., Thomas, S., Vessey, M. Gut (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. National health insurance. A view from Great Britain. McLachlan, G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of adjuvant oral capecitabine vs intravenous 5-FU/LV in Dukes' C colon cancer: the X-ACT trial. Cassidy, J., Douillard, J.Y., Twelves, C., McKendrick, J.J., Scheithauer, W., Bustová, I., Johnston, P.G., Lesniewski-Kmak, K., Jelic, S., Fountzilas, G., Coxon, F., Díaz-Rubio, E., Maughan, T.S., Malzyner, A., Bertetto, O., Beham, A., Figer, A., Dufour, P., Patel, K.K., Cowell, W., Garrison, L.P. Br. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Direct cost of medical management of epilepsy among adults in Italy: a prospective cost-of-illness study (EPICOS). Beghi, E., Garattini, L., Ricci, E., Cornago, D., Parazzini, F. Epilepsia (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Economic impact of using clodronate in the management of patients with multiple myeloma. Bruce, N.J., McCloskey, E.V., Kanis, J.A., Guest, J.F. Br. J. Haematol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinical audit and the purchaser-provider interaction: different attitudes and expectations in the United Kingdom. Thomson, R., Elcoat, C., Pugh, E. Quality in health care : QHC. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Cost effectiveness of peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin as initial therapy for treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C. Sullivan, S.D., Craxi, A., Alberti, A., Giuliani, G., De Carli, C., Wintfeld, N., Patel, K.K., Green, J. PharmacoEconomics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Competition between methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the anterior nares. Dall'Antonia, M., Coen, P.G., Wilks, M., Whiley, A., Millar, M. J. Hosp. Infect. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Hospital consultants--an influence on G.P. prescribing? A pilot study. Strickland-Hodge, B., Jepson, M.H. Journal of clinical and hospital pharmacy. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of water content on the stiffness of seating foams. Brown, A.M., Pearcy, M.J. Prosthetics and orthotics international. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Experience with human growth hormone in Great Britain: the report of the MRC Working Party. Milner, R.D., Russell-Fraser, T., Brook, C.G., Cotes, P.M., Farquhar, J.W., Parkin, J.M., Preece, M.A., Snodgrass, G.J., Mason, A.S., Tanner, J.M., Vince, F.P. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Economic evaluation of oral valdecoxib versus diclofenac in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a randomized clinical trial. von Scheele, B., Peña, B., Wong, J., Niculescu, L. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of a specialist haematological malignancy database against a regional cancer registry: case ascertainment and diagnostic accuracy. Phekoo, K., Møller, H., Richards, M., Schey, S. Br. J. Haematol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor expression in human corpora lutea: role on estradiol secretion. Johnson, M.C., Devoto, L., Retamales, I., Kohen, P., Troncoso, J.L., Aguilera, G. Fertil. Steril. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. GP prescribing of nicotine replacement and bupropion to aid smoking cessation in England and Wales. McEwen, A., West, R., Owen, L. Addiction (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Methadone prescribing to opiate addicts by private doctors: comparison with NHS practice in south east England. Strang, J., Sheridan, J. Addiction (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. NHS at 50. An American view. National Health Service. Himmelstein, D.U., Woolhandler, S. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. The pleasures and perils of prophetic advocacy: Henry E. Sigerist and the politics of medical reform. Fee, E. American journal of public health. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Prioritizing IVF patients according to the number of existing children--a proposed refinement to the current guideline. Chwalisz, B., McVeigh, E., Hope, T., Kennedy, S. Hum. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Skin cancer in people with multiple sclerosis: a record linkage study. Goldacre, M.J., Seagroatt, V., Yeates, D., Acheson, E.D. Journal of epidemiology and community health. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Retrospective cost analysis of gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer compared to other combination therapies in Europe. Schiller, J., Tilden, D., Aristides, M., Lees, M., Kielhorn, A., Maniadakis, N., Bhalla, S. Lung Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Presence of angiotensin II and expression of angiotensin II type-2 receptor in human fallopian tube. Johnson, M.C., Castro, A., Troncoso, J.L., Vantman, D., Devoto, L., Vega, M. Fertil. Steril. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. A review of minor surgery in general practice in the United Kingdom. Wall, D.W. Family practice. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Comparison of appendectomy medical expense and clinical outcome between fee for service and prospective payment system. Chen, B.H., Liu, H.W., Huang, S.L., Lin, F.C., Dai, M.G., Chen, Y.L., Hsieh, S.L., Huang, T.J. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Workload in oral and maxillofacial surgery: analysis of time trends from linked statistics in a defined population. Ferguson, J.A., Goldacre, M.J., Juniper, R.P. The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Commonly used types of postmenopausal estrogen for treatment of hot flashes: scientific review. Nelson, H.D. JAMA (2004) [Pubmed]
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