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Chemical Compound Review

Dynamite     1,3-dinitrooxypropan-2-yl nitrate

Synonyms: NitroBid, NitroDur, Nitrolan, Susadrin, Sustonit, ...
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Disease relevance of Nitro-Bid


Psychiatry related information on Nitro-Bid


High impact information on Nitro-Bid

  • A comparison of botulinum toxin and nitroglycerin ointment for chronic anal fissure [10].
  • We randomly assigned 50 adults with symptomatic chronic posterior anal fissures to receive treatment with either a total of 20 U of botulinum toxin injected into the internal anal sphincter on each side of the anterior midline or 0.2 percent nitroglycerin ointment applied twice daily for six weeks [11].
  • The ischemic threshold--assessed by multiplying the heart rate by the systolic blood pressure at a 1-mm depression of the ST segment during exercise testing--increased by 19 percent after the administration of nitroglycerin (P less than 0.05) and decreased by 18 percent after the administration of ergonovine (P less than 0.01) [12].
  • In vivo induction and reversal of nitroglycerin tolerance in human coronary arteries [13].
  • In contrast, intermittent therapy with intravenous nitroglycerin was not associated with a loss of hemodynamic efficacy or cross-tolerance to oral nitrates and was not accompanied by changes in neurohormonal activity or body weight [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Nitro-Bid


Biological context of Nitro-Bid


Anatomical context of Nitro-Bid


Associations of Nitro-Bid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Nitro-Bid

  • The significant correlation between serum concentrations of TNF alpha and forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine and nitroglycerin suggests that both the inducible and the constitutive forms of nitric oxide synthase are involved in the regulation of peripheral vasomotor tone in patients with CHF [31].
  • Nitroglycerin upregulates matrix metalloproteinase expression by human macrophages [32].
  • Nitroglycerin 2,000 pmol also increased MMP-2 and MMP-7 mRNA levels to 187 +/- 8% and 183 +/- 21% of control values, respectively (p < 0.05) [32].
  • Nitroglycerin treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 mRNA levels (NTG 200 pmol: 193 +/- 6% and NTG 2,000 pmol: 372 +/- 9% compared to controls, p < 0.005) and MMP-9 activity (NTG 200: 142 +/- 5.5% and NTG 2,000: 167 +/- 11% compared to controls, p < 0.005) [32].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nitroglycerin in pharmacologically relevant concentrations activates MMP but represses TIMP expression in human macrophages [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nitro-Bid


  1. Reduction of ischemic injury by nitroglycerin during acute myocardial infarction. Epstein, S.E., Kent, K.M., Goldstein, R.E., Borer, J.S., Redwood, D.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Reduction in myocardial ischemia with nitroglycerin or nitroglycerin plus phenylephrine administered during acute myocardial infarction. Borer, J.S., Redwood, D.R., Levitt, B., Cagin, N., Bianchi, C., Vallin, H., Epstein, S.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Reversal by phenylephrine of the beneficial effects of intravenous nitroglycerin in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Come, P.C., Flaherty, J.T., Baird, M.G., Rouleau, J.R., Weisfeldt, M.L., Greene, H.L., Becker, L., Pitt, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Passive smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in healthy young adults. Celermajer, D.S., Adams, M.R., Clarkson, P., Robinson, J., McCredie, R., Donald, A., Deanfield, J.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Wernicke's encephalopathy and high-dose nitroglycerin. Nadel, A.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. History of anxiety disorders is associated with a decreased likelihood of angiographic coronary artery disease in women with chest pain: the WISE study. Rutledge, T., Reis, S.E., Olson, M., Owens, J., Kelsey, S.F., Pepine, C.J., Reichek, N., Rogers, W.J., Merz, C.N., Sopko, G., Cornell, C.E., Sharaf, B., Matthews, K.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Structure-activity relationship of chemical penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery. Kanikkannan, N., Kandimalla, K., Lamba, S.S., Singh, M. Current medicinal chemistry. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Topical glyceryltrinitrate causes measurable penile arterial dilation in impotent men. Heaton, J.P., Morales, A., Owen, J., Saunders, F.W., Fenemore, J. J. Urol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Modification of electroconvulsive therapy induced hypertension with nitroglycerin ointment. Lee, J.T., Erbguth, P.H., Stevens, W.C., Sack, R.L. Anesthesiology (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. A comparison of botulinum toxin and nitroglycerin ointment for chronic anal fissure. Vogel, J.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. A comparison of injections of botulinum toxin and topical nitroglycerin ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Brisinda, G., Maria, G., Bentivoglio, A.R., Cassetta, E., Gui, D., Albanese, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Myocardial ischemia caused by distal coronary-artery constriction in stable angina pectoris. Pupita, G., Maseri, A., Kaski, J.C., Galassi, A.R., Gavrielides, S., Davies, G., Crea, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. In vivo induction and reversal of nitroglycerin tolerance in human coronary arteries. May, D.C., Popma, J.J., Black, W.H., Schaefer, S., Lee, H.R., Levine, B.D., Hillis, L.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Prevention and reversal of nitrate tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure. Packer, M., Lee, W.H., Kessler, P.D., Gottlieb, S.S., Medina, N., Yushak, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of nitroglycerin and propranolol on the distribution of transmural myocardial blood flow during ischemia in the absence of hemodynamic changes in the unanesthetized dog. Swain, J.L., Parker, J.P., McHale, P.A., Greenfield, J.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of intravenous nitrates on mortality in acute myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomised trials. Yusuf, S., Collins, R., MacMahon, S., Peto, R. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Intravenous diltiazem versus glyceryl trinitrate for unstable angina pectoris. Cruickshank, J.K. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Nitric oxide is a key molecule in migraine and other vascular headaches. Olesen, J., Thomsen, L.L., Iversen, H. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Emergency coronary angioplasty in refractory unstable angina. de Feyter, P.J., Serruys, P.W., van den Brand, M., Balakumaran, K., Mochtar, B., Soward, A.L., Arnold, A.E., Hugenholtz, P.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. DNA deaminating ability and genotoxicity of nitric oxide and its progenitors. Wink, D.A., Kasprzak, K.S., Maragos, C.M., Elespuru, R.K., Misra, M., Dunams, T.M., Cebula, T.A., Koch, W.H., Andrews, A.W., Allen, J.S. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Nitroglycerin ointment and electrical resistance. Minnich, C.J., Pennock, M. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Airway response to sublingual nitroglycerin in acute asthma. Kennedy, T., Summer, W.R., Sylvester, J., Robertson, D. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Defective venous beta-adrenergic response in borderline hypertensive subjects is corrected by a low sodium diet. Feldman, R.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Ineffectiveness of sublingual nitroglycerin in patients with dry mucous membranes. Rasler, F.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Elevation of oxygen release by nitroglycerin without an increase in blood flow in the hepatic microcirculation. Kosaka, H., Seiyama, A. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. A reappraisal of nitrate therapy. Abrams, J. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. N-Acetylcysteine potentiates inhibition of platelet aggregation by nitroglycerin. Loscalzo, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Propranolol-withdrawal rebound phenomenon. Exacerbation of coronary events after abrupt cessation of antianginal therapy. Miller, R.R., Olson, H.G., Amsterdam, E.A., Mason, D.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis in vivo and endothelial cell growth and migration in vitro promoted by substance P. Ziche, M., Morbidelli, L., Masini, E., Amerini, S., Granger, H.J., Maggi, C.A., Geppetti, P., Ledda, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of nitroglycerin and dipyridamole on regional left ventricular blood flow during coronary artery occlusion. Becker, L.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Pathophysiological correlates of increased serum tumor necrosis factor in patients with congestive heart failure. Relation to nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in the forearm circulation. Katz, S.D., Rao, R., Berman, J.W., Schwarz, M., Demopoulos, L., Bijou, R., LeJemtel, T.H. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Nitroglycerin upregulates matrix metalloproteinase expression by human macrophages. Death, A.K., Nakhla, S., McGrath, K.C., Martell, S., Yue, D.K., Jessup, W., Celermajer, D.S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Coronary-artery spasm immediately after myocardial revascularization: recognition and management. Buxton, A.E., Goldberg, S., Harken, A., Hirshfield, J., Kastor, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Letter: Treatment failure with nitroglycerin. Simon, R.H., Fye, K.H., Hellerstein, D., Moutsopoulos, H. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  35. Role of heart rate in pathophysiology of chronic stable angina. Chierchia, S., Gallino, A., Smith, G., Deanfield, J., Morgan, M., Croom, M., Maseri, A. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Noninvasive assessment of portal-systemic shunting: evaluation of a method to investigate systemic availability of oral glyceryl trinitrate by digital plethysmography. Porchet, H., Bircher, J. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  37. Portal-systemic shunting and the hemodynamic effects of nitroglycerin in the rat. Blei, A.T., O'Reilly, D.J., Gottstein, J. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
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