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MeSH Review



Meta-analysis is defined as "a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine."   Standards for the reporting of meta-analyses exist. [1]



Studies on the validity of meta-analyses conflict on the concordance of meta-analysis and underlying research. [2], [3], [4]


Disease relevance of Meta-Analysis


Psychiatry related information on Meta-Analysis


High impact information on Meta-Analysis


Chemical compound and disease context of Meta-Analysis


Biological context of Meta-Analysis


Anatomical context of Meta-Analysis


Associations of Meta-Analysis with chemical compounds


Gene context of Meta-Analysis


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Meta-Analysis






  1. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D.G. Ann. Intern. Med. (2009) [Pubmed]
  2. Discrepancies between meta-analyses and subsequent large randomized, controlled trials. LeLorier, J., Grégoire, G., Benhaddad, A., Lapierre, J., Derderian, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Large trials vs meta-analysis of smaller trials: how do their results compare?. Cappelleri, J.C., Ioannidis, J.P., Schmid, C.H., de Ferranti, S.D., Aubert, M., Chalmers, T.C., Lau, J. JAMA. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Predictive ability of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. Villar, J., Carroli, G., Belizán, J.M. Lancet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. II. Meta-analysis of alendronate for the treatment of postmenopausal women. Cranney, A., Wells, G., Willan, A., Griffith, L., Zytaruk, N., Robinson, V., Black, D., Adachi, J., Shea, B., Tugwell, P., Guyatt, G. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of statins on risk of coronary disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. LaRosa, J.C., He, J., Vupputuri, S. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. Boushey, C.J., Beresford, S.A., Omenn, G.S., Motulsky, A.G. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Problems in the design and reporting of trials of antifungal agents encountered during meta-analysis. Johansen, H.K., Gotzsche, P.C. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Dexamethasone as adjunctive therapy in bacterial meningitis. A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials since 1988. McIntyre, P.B., Berkey, C.S., King, S.M., Schaad, U.B., Kilpi, T., Kanra, G.Y., Perez, C.M. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women: effects on cognitive function and dementia. Yaffe, K., Sawaya, G., Lieberburg, I., Grady, D. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The effectiveness of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation. A meta-analysis. Fiore, M.C., Smith, S.S., Jorenby, D.E., Baker, T.B. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Benzodiazepines and zolpidem for chronic insomnia: a meta-analysis of treatment efficacy. Nowell, P.D., Mazumdar, S., Buysse, D.J., Dew, M.A., Reynolds, C.F., Kupfer, D.J. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Efficacy and tolerability of serotonin transport inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive disorder. A meta-analysis. Greist, J.H., Jefferson, J.W., Kobak, K.A., Katzelnick, D.J., Serlin, R.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Population-based and family-based studies on the serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cho, H.J., Meira-Lima, I., Cordeiro, Q., Michelon, L., Sham, P., Vallada, H., Collier, D.A. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. Anderson, J.W., Johnstone, B.M., Cook-Newell, M.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. NHS opens meta-analysis centre. Mundell, I. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. III. Meta-analysis of risedronate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cranney, A., Tugwell, P., Adachi, J., Weaver, B., Zytaruk, N., Papaioannou, A., Robinson, V., Shea, B., Wells, G., Guyatt, G. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. IV. Meta-analysis of raloxifene for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cranney, A., Tugwell, P., Zytaruk, N., Robinson, V., Weaver, B., Adachi, J., Wells, G., Shea, B., Guyatt, G. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional impairment in Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis. Trinh, N.H., Hoblyn, J., Mohanty, S., Yaffe, K. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Cholinesterase inhibition for Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis of the tacrine trials. Dementia Trialists' Collaboration. Qizilbash, N., Whitehead, A., Higgins, J., Wilcock, G., Schneider, L., Farlow, M. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Oral triptans (serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) agonists) in acute migraine treatment: a meta-analysis of 53 trials. Ferrari, M.D., Roon, K.I., Lipton, R.B., Goadsby, P.J. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Parenteral nutrition with branched-chain amino acids in hepatic encephalopathy. A meta-analysis. Naylor, C.D., O'Rourke, K., Detsky, A.S., Baker, J.P. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Adjuvant chemotherapy plus tamoxifen compared with tamoxifen alone for postmenopausal breast cancer: meta-analysis of quality-adjusted survival. Gelber, R.D., Cole, B.F., Goldhirsch, A., Rose, C., Fisher, B., Osborne, C.K., Boccardo, F., Gray, R., Gordon, N.H., Bengtsson, N.O., Sevelda, P. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Mesalamine in the maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis adjusted for confounding variables. Cammà, C., Giunta, M., Rosselli, M., Cottone, M. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of sodium restriction on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride: a meta-analysis. Graudal, N.A., Galløe, A.M., Garred, P. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. HRAS1 rare minisatellite alleles and breast cancer in Australian women under age forty years. Firgaira, F.A., Seshadri, R., McEvoy, C.R., Dite, G.S., Giles, G.G., McCredie, M.R., Southey, M.C., Venter, D.J., Hopper, J.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. A COL1A1 Sp1 binding site polymorphism predisposes to osteoporotic fracture by affecting bone density and quality. Mann, V., Hobson, E.E., Li, B., Stewart, T.L., Grant, S.F., Robins, S.P., Aspden, R.M., Ralston, S.H. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in coronary artery disease. Kluijtmans, L.A., Kastelein, J.J., Lindemans, J., Boers, G.H., Heil, S.G., Bruschke, A.V., Jukema, J.W., van den Heuvel, L.P., Trijbels, F.J., Boerma, G.J., Verheugt, F.W., Willems, F., Blom, H.J. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies for quantitative lipid traits in African Americans. Malhotra, A., Coon, H., Feitosa, M.F., Li, W.D., North, K.E., Price, R.A., Bouchard, C., Hunt, S.C., Wolford, J.K. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Meta-analysis of the long-term effect of nifedipine for pulmonary hypertension. Malik, A.S., Warshafsky, S., Lehrman, S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. The human parietal operculum. II. Stereotaxic maps and correlation with functional imaging results. Eickhoff, S.B., Amunts, K., Mohlberg, H., Zilles, K. Cereb. Cortex (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Missense mutations in the pancreatic islet beta cell inwardly rectifying K+ channel gene (KIR6.2/BIR): a meta-analysis suggests a role in the polygenic basis of Type II diabetes mellitus in Caucasians. Hani, E.H., Boutin, P., Durand, E., Inoue, H., Permutt, M.A., Velho, G., Froguel, P. Diabetologia (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Angiographic evidence for the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in progression of coronary artery disease. Thompson, G.R. Eur. Heart J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Suppressive therapy with levothyroxine for solitary thyroid nodules: a double-blind controlled clinical study and cumulative meta-analyses. Zelmanovitz, F., Genro, S., Gross, J.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. The postmenopausal estrogen/breast cancer controversy. Henrich, J.B. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Elective cyclosporine withdrawal after renal transplantation. A meta-analysis. Kasiske, B.L., Heim-Duthoy, K., Ma, J.Z. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Meta-analysis of prevention of nonvertebral fractures by alendronate. Ross, S.D. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. retrospective analysis of topoisomerase IIa amplifications and deletions as predictive markers in primary breast cancer patients randomly assigned to cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. Knoop, A.S., Knudsen, H., Balslev, E., Rasmussen, B.B., Overgaard, J., Nielsen, K.V., Schonau, A., Gunnarsdóttir, K., Olsen, K.E., Mouridsen, H., Ejlertsen, B. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Identification of GATA3 as a breast cancer prognostic marker by global gene expression meta-analysis. Mehra, R., Varambally, S., Ding, L., Shen, R., Sabel, M.S., Ghosh, D., Chinnaiyan, A.M., Kleer, C.G. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Lack of association of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope with rheumatoid nodules: an individual patient data meta-analysis of 3,272 Caucasian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Gorman, J.D., David-Vaudey, E., Pai, M., Lum, R.F., Criswell, L.A. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. A meta-analysis of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking. Kluger, A.N., Siegfried, Z., Ebstein, R.P. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Lack of association of the COMT (Val158/108 Met) gene and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Munafò, M.R., Bowes, L., Clark, T.G., Flint, J. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  43. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. McAlindon, T.E., LaValley, M.P., Gulin, J.P., Felson, D.T. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  44. Economic implications of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in treatment of nonresectable colorectal liver metastases. Meta-Analysis Group in Cancer. Durand-Zaleski, I., Roche, B., Buyse, M., Carlson, R., O'Connell, M.J., Rougier, P., Chang, A.E., Sondak, V.K., Kemeny, M.M., Allen-Mersh, T.G., Fagniez, P.L., Le Bourgeois, J.P., Piedbois, P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  45. Epoetin treatment of anemia associated with cancer therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Seidenfeld, J., Piper, M., Flamm, C., Hasselblad, V., Armitage, J.O., Bennett, C.L., Gordon, M.S., Lichtin, A.E., Wade, J.L., Woolf, S., Aronson, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  46. Meta-analysis of respiratory rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lacasse, Y., Wong, E., Guyatt, G.H., King, D., Cook, D.J., Goldstein, R.S. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  47. Patients' preference in indomethacin trials: an overview. Gøtzsche, P.C. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
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