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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Cryptococcosis


High impact information on Cryptococcosis

  • There was no significant difference between the groups in overall mortality due to cryptococcosis (amphotericin vs. fluconazole, 9 of 63 [14 percent] vs. 24 of 131 [18 percent]; P = 0.48); however, mortality during the first two weeks of therapy was higher in the fluconazole group (15 percent vs. 8 percent; P = 0.25) [6].
  • Chloroquine might have clinical utility for the prophylaxis and treatment of human cryptococcosis [7].
  • The addition of low-dose, intravenous amphotericin B to flucytosine therapy of cryptococcosis has appeared to decrease the frequency of secondary flucytosine resistance [8].
  • In addition to cell-mediated immunity, monoclonal antibodies to the major capsular polysaccharide, the glucuronoxylomannan, offer some protection in murine models of cryptococcosis [9].
  • The results provide direct in vivo evidence for the importance of quantitative differences in IFN-gamma secretion in human immune control of granulomatous infections, and increase the rationale for adjunctive IFN-gamma in the treatment of refractory HIV-associated cryptococcosis [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cryptococcosis

  • Rustmicin was efficacious in a mouse model for cryptococcosis, but it was less active than predicted from its in vitro potency against this pathogen [11].
  • Three of the four patients who received amphotericin B were cured of their infection; three patients died, including one patient with overwhelming cryptococcosis who had received intensive antifungal therapy and transfer factor [12].
  • Twelve patients with primary pulmonary cryptococcosis treated with itraconazole as acute and maintenance therapy were all protected against disseminated cryptococcal disease; seven out of 10 (70%) of those who did not receive a specific anticryptococcal drug developed disseminated cryptococcal disease [13].
  • Treatment of cryptococcosis with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in 23 patients with AIDS [14].
  • We studied the efficacy of itraconazole, a new oral triazole, in 33 patients (32 were immunocompromised) with cryptococcosis [4].

Biological context of Cryptococcosis


Anatomical context of Cryptococcosis


Gene context of Cryptococcosis

  • Immunomodulation with CD40 stimulation and interleukin-2 protects mice from disseminated cryptococcosis [23].
  • The cytokine network and infection severity were characterized during disseminated cryptococcosis in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- and lymphotoxin (Lt)-alpha-deficient mice [24].
  • These data demonstrate that IL-2 and GM-CSF are capable of stimulating PBMC-mediated antifungal activity and suggest that these cytokines may play physiological or pharmacological roles in host defenses against cryptococcosis [25].
  • Scavengers of GXM and/or IL-10 could be useful in a protective Th1-type response in patients with cryptococcosis [26].
  • The course of pulmonary cryptococcosis was studied in more detail in the CD14(-/-), TLR2(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) mice [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cryptococcosis


  1. Miconazole in cryptococcosis and systemic candidiasis: a word of caution. Bennett, J.E., Remington, J.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Oral fluconazole as suppressive therapy of disseminated cryptococcosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Sugar, A.M., Saunders, C. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Fluconazole as prophylaxis against fungal infection in patients with advanced HIV infection. Manfredi, R., Mastroianni, A., Coronado, O.V., Chiodo, F. Arch. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Itraconazole therapy for cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcosis. Denning, D.W., Tucker, R.M., Hanson, L.H., Hamilton, J.R., Stevens, D.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Pityrosporum folliculitis. Its potential for confusion with skin lesions of systemic candidiasis. Klotz, S.A., Drutz, D.J., Huppert, M., Johnson, J.E. Arch. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparison of amphotericin B with fluconazole in the treatment of acute AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Saag, M.S., Powderly, W.G., Cloud, G.A., Robinson, P., Grieco, M.H., Sharkey, P.K., Thompson, S.E., Sugar, A.M., Tuazon, C.U., Fisher, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Chloroquine induces human mononuclear phagocytes to inhibit and kill Cryptococcus neoformans by a mechanism independent of iron deprivation. Levitz, S.M., Harrison, T.S., Tabuni, A., Liu, X. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Flucytosine. Bennet, J.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Cryptococcosis in the era of AIDS--100 years after the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mitchell, T.G., Perfect, J.R. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. IFN-gamma at the site of infection determines rate of clearance of infection in cryptococcal meningitis. Siddiqui, A.A., Brouwer, A.E., Wuthiekanun, V., Jaffar, S., Shattock, R., Irving, D., Sheldon, J., Chierakul, W., Peacock, S., Day, N., White, N.J., Harrison, T.S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Rustmicin, a potent antifungal agent, inhibits sphingolipid synthesis at inositol phosphoceramide synthase. Mandala, S.M., Thornton, R.A., Milligan, J., Rosenbach, M., Garcia-Calvo, M., Bull, H.G., Harris, G., Abruzzo, G.K., Flattery, A.M., Gill, C.J., Bartizal, K., Dreikorn, S., Kurtz, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Invasive fungal infections in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Kauffman, C.A., Shea, M.J., Frame, P.T. Arch. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Pulmonary cryptococcosis associated with HIV-1 infection in Rwanda: a retrospective study of 37 cases. Batungwanayo, J., Taelman, H., Bogaerts, J., Allen, S., Lucas, S., Kagame, A., Clerinx, J., Montané, J., Saraux, A., Mühlberger, F. AIDS (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of cryptococcosis with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in 23 patients with AIDS. Coker, R.J., Viviani, M., Gazzard, B.G., Du Pont, B., Pohle, H.D., Murphy, S.M., Atouguia, J., Champalimaud, J.L., Harris, J.R. AIDS (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. The Cryptococcus neoformans MAP kinase Mpk1 regulates cell integrity in response to antifungal drugs and loss of calcineurin function. Kraus, P.R., Fox, D.S., Cox, G.M., Heitman, J. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficacy of recombinant gamma interferon for treatment of systemic cryptococcosis in SCID mice. Clemons, K.V., Lutz, J.E., Stevens, D.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic resistance to murine cryptococcosis: increased susceptibility in the CBA/N XID mutant strain of mice. Marquis, G., Montplaisir, S., Pelletier, M., Mousseau, S., Auger, P. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Kakeya, H., Udono, H., Maesaki, S., Sasaki, E., Kawamura, S., Hossain, M.A., Yamamoto, Y., Sawai, T., Fukuda, M., Mitsutake, K., Miyazaki, Y., Tomono, K., Tashiro, T., Nakayama, E., Kohno, S. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Levels of L-selectin (CD62L) on human leukocytes in disseminated cryptococcosis with and without associated HIV-1 infection. Jackson, L.A., Drevets, D.A., Dong, Z.M., Greenfield, R.A., Murphy, J.W. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Downregulation by cryptococcal polysaccharide of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion from human monocytes. Vecchiarelli, A., Retini, C., Pietrella, D., Monari, C., Tascini, C., Beccari, T., Kozel, T.R. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Enhanced gamma interferon production through activation of Valpha14(+) natural killer T cells by alpha-galactosylceramide in interleukin-18-deficient mice with systemic cryptococcosis. Kawakami, K., Kinjo, Y., Yara, S., Uezu, K., Koguchi, Y., Tohyama, M., Azuma, M., Takeda, K., Akira, S., Saito, A. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Cryptococcosis of the central nervous system in a dog. O'Toole, T.E., Sato, A.F., Rozanski, E.A. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunomodulation with CD40 stimulation and interleukin-2 protects mice from disseminated cryptococcosis. Zhou, Q., Gault, R.A., Kozel, T.R., Murphy, W.J. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Enhanced sensitivity of tumor necrosis factor/lymphotoxin-alpha-deficient mice to Cryptococcus neoformans infection despite increased levels of nitrite/nitrate, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-12. Rayhane, N., Lortholary, O., Fitting, C., Callebert, J., Huerre, M., Dromer, F., Cavaillon, J.M. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans. Levitz, S.M. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Interdependency of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 in regulation of T-cell differentiation and effector function of monocytes in response to stimulation with Cryptococcus neoformans. Retini, C., Kozel, T.R., Pietrella, D., Monari, C., Bistoni, F., Vecchiarelli, A. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Involvement of CD14, toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the host response to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo. Yauch, L.E., Mansour, M.K., Shoham, S., Rottman, J.B., Levitz, S.M. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Cryptococcosis: population-based multistate active surveillance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. Cryptococcal Active Surveillance Group. Hajjeh, R.A., Conn, L.A., Stephens, D.S., Baughman, W., Hamill, R., Graviss, E., Pappas, P.G., Thomas, C., Reingold, A., Rothrock, G., Hutwagner, L.C., Schuchat, A., Brandt, M.E., Pinner, R.W. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay and latex agglutination methods for detection of Cryptococcus neoformans antigen. Scott, E.N., Muchmore, H.G., Felton, F.G. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Cutaneous cryptococcosis in a patient with cutaneous T cell lymphoma receiving therapy with photopheresis and methotrexate. Frieden, T.R., Bia, F.J., Heald, P.W., Eisen, R.N., Patterson, T.F., Edelson, R.L. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Deep fungal infection in systemic lupus erythematosus - three cases reported, literature reviewed. Sieving, R.R., Kauffman, C.A., Watanakunakorn, C. J. Rheumatol. (1975) [Pubmed]
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