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Gene Review

Tlr2  -  toll-like receptor 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Ly105, Toll-like receptor 2
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Disease relevance of Tlr2


High impact information on Tlr2

  • Thus, NOD2-deficient mice become susceptible to colitis as a result of increased TLR2 responses when they have the capacity to respond to an antigen expressed by mucosal bacteria [6].
  • Moreover, NOD2 deficiency or the presence of a Crohn disease-like Card15 mutation increased Toll-like receptor 2-mediated activation of NF-kappa B-c-Rel, and T(H)1 responses were enhanced [7].
  • All TLR2 agonists poorly induced IFN-beta, which is encoded by an immediate early LPS-inducible gene [8].
  • Together, these findings provide the first mechanistic basis for differential patterns of gene expression activated by TLR4 and TLR2 agonists [8].
  • Murine macrophages stimulated with the TLR4 agonist Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not with TLR2 agonists, induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1alpha (STAT1alpha) and STAT1beta, which was blocked by antibodies to interferon beta (IFN-beta) but not IFN-alpha [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tlr2


Biological context of Tlr2


Anatomical context of Tlr2


Associations of Tlr2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Tlr2

  • Furthermore, the increase in restriction enzyme accessibility at the TLR2 promoter region did not appear to result from binding of NF-kappa B, but rather depended on a TLR2-myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway [23].

Regulatory relationships of Tlr2


Other interactions of Tlr2

  • In contrast, Tlr4, Tlr2, and Cd14 KO mice showed no deficits in the production of IL-6 [29].
  • IFN-gamma, a cytokine sensitizing to endotoxin, was induced by P. acnes in splenocytes of TLR2-/- and TLR9-/- but not MyD88-/- mice [3].
  • The level of IFNGR-1 mRNA also decreased in TLR2-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and M. avium-infected cells [30].
  • Mphi from interleukin (IL)-1 receptor type I-/-, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2-/-) and RAGE-/- mice were used to investigate the role of these receptors in HMGB1 signalling [31].
  • Interestingly, the activation of TLR2 by live P. gingivalis inhibited the release of RANTES, VCAM-1, and IL-1alpha from mouse peritoneal macrophages [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tlr2


  1. Toll-like receptor 2 and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 are effectors of Mycobacterium avium-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages. Pathak, S.K., Bhattacharyya, A., Pathak, S., Basak, C., Mandal, D., Kundu, M., Basu, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Lipopolysaccharide preparation extracted from Porphyromonas gingivalis lipoprotein-deficient mutant shows a marked decrease in toll-like receptor 2-mediated signaling. Asai, Y., Hashimoto, M., Fletcher, H.M., Miyake, K., Akira, S., Ogawa, T. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates inflammatory cytokine induction but not sensitization for liver injury by Propioni- bacterium acnes. Romics, L., Dolganiuc, A., Velayudham, A., Kodys, K., Mandrekar, P., Golenbock, D., Kurt-Jones, E., Szabo, G. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates astrocyte activation in response to the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Esen, N., Tanga, F.Y., DeLeo, J.A., Kielian, T. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. A critical role of toll-like receptor 2 in nerve injury-induced spinal cord glial cell activation and pain hypersensitivity. Kim, D., Kim, M.A., Cho, I.H., Kim, M.S., Lee, S., Jo, E.K., Choi, S.Y., Park, K., Kim, J.S., Akira, S., Na, H.S., Oh, S.B., Lee, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide Binding Oligomerization Domain 2 Deficiency Leads to Dysregulated TLR2 Signaling and Induction of Antigen-Specific Colitis. Watanabe, T., Kitani, A., Murray, P.J., Wakatsuki, Y., Fuss, I.J., Strober, W. Immunity (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. NOD2 is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated T helper type 1 responses. Watanabe, T., Kitani, A., Murray, P.J., Strober, W. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. TLR4, but not TLR2, mediates IFN-beta-induced STAT1alpha/beta-dependent gene expression in macrophages. Toshchakov, V., Jones, B.W., Perera, P.Y., Thomas, K., Cody, M.J., Zhang, S., Williams, B.R., Major, J., Hamilton, T.A., Fenton, M.J., Vogel, S.N. Nat. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Time-course expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in inflammatory bowel disease and homeostatic effect of VIP. Gomariz, R.P., Arranz, A., Abad, C., Torroba, M., Martinez, C., Rosignoli, F., Garcia-Gómez, M., Leceta, J., Juarranz, Y. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. A toll-like receptor 2-responsive lipid effector pathway protects mammals against skin infections with gram-positive bacteria. Georgel, P., Crozat, K., Lauth, X., Makrantonaki, E., Seltmann, H., Sovath, S., Hoebe, K., Du, X., Rutschmann, S., Jiang, Z., Bigby, T., Nizet, V., Zouboulis, C.C., Beutler, B. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Can medroxyprogesterone acetate alter Toll-like receptor expression in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation? Elovitz, M.A., Mrinalini, C. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. TLR2 but not TLR4 Signalling is Critically Involved in the Inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced Killing of Mycobacteria by Murine Macrophages. Arko-Mensah, J., Julián, E., Singh, M., Fernández, C. Scand. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine-dependent OspA vaccination of toll-like receptor 2-deficient mice results in effective protection from Borrelia burgdorferi challenge. Yoder, A., Wang, X., Ma, Y., Philipp, M.T., Heilbrun, M., Weis, J.H., Kirschning, C.J., Wooten, R.M., Weis, J.J. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Toxoplasma gondii inhibits toll-like receptor 4 ligand-induced mobilization of intracellular tumor necrosis factor alpha to the surface of mouse peritoneal neutrophils. Bennouna, S., Sukhumavasi, W., Denkers, E.Y. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. High fat intake induces a population of adipocytes to co-express TLR2 and TNFalpha in mice with insulin resistance. Murakami, K., Bujo, H., Unoki, H., Saito, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. MyD88-dependent but Toll-like receptor 2-independent innate immunity to Listeria: no role for either in macrophage listericidal activity. Edelson, B.T., Unanue, E.R. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt occupy central roles in inflammatory responses of Toll-like receptor 2-stimulated neutrophils. Strassheim, D., Asehnoune, K., Park, J.S., Kim, J.Y., He, Q., Richter, D., Kuhn, K., Mitra, S., Abraham, E. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Cytokine profiling of macrophages exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis, its lipopolysaccharide, or its FimA protein. Zhou, Q., Desta, T., Fenton, M., Graves, D.T., Amar, S. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Synergy between TLR2 and TLR4: a safety mechanism. Beutler, E., Gelbart, T., West, C. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Platelet-activating factor receptor and innate immunity: uptake of gram-positive bacterial cell wall into host cells and cell-specific pathophysiology. Fillon, S., Soulis, K., Rajasekaran, S., Benedict-Hamilton, H., Radin, J.N., Orihuela, C.J., El Kasmi, K.C., Murti, G., Kaushal, D., Gaber, M.W., Weber, J.R., Murray, P.J., Tuomanen, E.I. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Involvement of CD14, toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the host response to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo. Yauch, L.E., Mansour, M.K., Shoham, S., Rottman, J.B., Levitz, S.M. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Toll-like receptor 2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis because of reduced bacterial clearing and enhanced inflammation. Echchannaoui, H., Frei, K., Schnell, C., Leib, S.L., Zimmerli, W., Landmann, R. J. Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Rapid chromatin remodeling of Toll-like receptor 2 promoter during infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium avium. Wang, T., Lafuse, W.P., Takeda, K., Akira, S., Zwilling, B.S. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Toll-like receptor 2 suppresses immunity against Candida albicans through induction of IL-10 and regulatory T cells. Netea, M.G., Sutmuller, R., Hermann, C., Van der Graaf, C.A., Van der Meer, J.W., van Krieken, J.H., Hartung, T., Adema, G., Kullberg, B.J. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. TGF-beta down-regulates IL-1alpha-induced TLR2 expression in murine hepatocytes. Matsumura, T., Hayashi, H., Takii, T., Thorn, C.F., Whitehead, A.S., Inoue, J., Onozaki, K. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Amyloid beta peptide 1-40 enhances the action of Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 agonists but antagonizes Toll-like receptor-9-induced inflammation in primary mouse microglial cell cultures. Lotz, M., Ebert, S., Esselmann, H., Iliev, A.I., Prinz, M., Wiazewicz, N., Wiltfang, J., Gerber, J., Nau, R. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium inhibit IFN- gamma -induced gene expression by TLR2-dependent and independent pathways. Lafuse, W.P., Alvarez, G.R., Curry, H.M., Zwilling, B.S. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Cutting edge: activation of Toll-like receptor 2 induces a Th2 immune response and promotes experimental asthma. Redecke, V., Häcker, H., Datta, S.K., Fermin, A., Pitha, P.M., Broide, D.H., Raz, E. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Proinflammatory cytokine production in liver regeneration is Myd88-dependent, but independent of Cd14, Tlr2, and Tlr4. Campbell, J.S., Riehle, K.J., Brooling, J.T., Bauer, R.L., Mitchell, C., Fausto, N. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Toll-like receptor 2 stimulation decreases IFN-gamma receptor expression in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. Curry, H., Alvarez, G.R., Zwilling, B.S., Lafuse, W.P. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. RAGE is the major receptor for the proinflammatory activity of HMGB1 in rodent macrophages. Kokkola, R., Andersson, A., Mullins, G., Ostberg, T., Treutiger, C.J., Arnold, B., Nawroth, P., Andersson, U., Harris, R.A., Harris, H.E. Scand. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential roles of CD14 and toll-like receptors 4 and 2 in murine Acinetobacter pneumonia. Knapp, S., Wieland, C.W., Florquin, S., Pantophlet, R., Dijkshoorn, L., Tshimbalanga, N., Akira, S., van der Poll, T. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential involvement of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the host response to acute respiratory infections with wild-type and mutant Haemophilus influenzae strains. Lorenz, E., Chemotti, D.C., Jiang, A.L., McDougal, L.D. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is pivotal for recognition of S. aureus peptidoglycan but not intact bacteria by microglia. Kielian, T., Esen, N., Bearden, E.D. Glia (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Protection against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury via downregulation of toll-like receptor 2 expression by inhibition of Kupffer cell function. Zhang, J.X., Wu, H.S., Wang, H., Zhang, J.H., Wang, Y., Zheng, Q.C. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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