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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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High impact information on Horses

  • The gene encoding the major horse allergen, designated Equus caballus allergen 1 (Equ c1), was cloned from total cDNA of sublingual salivary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides deduced from N-terminal and internal peptide sequences of the glycosylated hair dandruff protein [1].
  • MmADH alpha reacts 130-fold slower (V/K) with ethanol and 3-25-fold slower with 2-methyl alcohols but 20-fold faster with cyclohexanol, as compared with horse (Equus caballus) liver EE isoenzyme (EqADH) [2].
  • Large quantities of an unusual 19 kDa protein (p19) are secreted into the lumen of the uterus of the mare (Equus caballus) during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy. p19 associates strongly with the acellular capsule that surrounds the young horse conceptus and is believed to be important in maintaining pregnancy [3].
  • The present study describes the patterns of melatonin production in the mule (Equus asinus x Equus caballus) [4].
  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) alcohol dehydrogenase I (SceADH) binds NAD+ and NADH less tightly and turns over substrates more rapidly than does horse (Equus caballus) liver alcohol dehydrogenase E isoenzyme (EcaADH), and neither enzyme uses NADP efficiently [5].

Biological context of Horses


Anatomical context of Horses


Associations of Horses with chemical compounds


Gene context of Horses


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Horses

  • The sequence and intron/exon boundaries determined were used to design PCR primers to amplify and sequence the coding region of the beta(2)-m gene in other equids, including five breeds of domestic horse, one Przewalski's horse, five domestic donkeys and five zebras [19].


  1. cDNA cloning and sequencing reveal the major horse allergen Equ c1 to be a glycoprotein member of the lipocalin superfamily. Gregoire, C., Rosinski-Chupin, I., Rabillon, J., Alzari, P.M., David, B., Dandeu, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Alpha-isoenzyme of alcohol dehydrogenase from monkey liver. Cloning, expression, mechanism, coenzyme, and substrate specificity. Light, D.R., Dennis, M.S., Forsythe, I.J., Liu, C.C., Green, D.W., Kratzer, D.A., Plapp, B.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. A 19 kDa protein secreted by the endometrium of the mare is a novel member of the lipocalin family. Crossett, B., Allen, W.R., Stewart, F. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Circadian and seasonal rhythms of melatonin production in mules (Equus asinus x Equus caballus). Cozzi, B., Morei, G., Ravault, J.P., Chesneau, D., Reiter, R.J. J. Pineal Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Probing the affinity and specificity of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I for coenzymes. Fan, F., Plapp, B.V. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of a microsatellite in the promoter region of the IGF1 gene in domestic horses and other equids. Caetano, A.R., Bowling, A.T. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and chromosomal localization of MX1 and ETS2 to chromosome 26 of the horse (Equus caballus). Lear, T.L., Breen, M., Ponce de Leon, F.A., Coogle, L., Ferguson, E.M., Chambers, T.M., Bailey, E. Chromosome Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Testis size and onset of spermatogenesis in Cape mountain zebras (Equus zebra zebra). Penzhorn, B.L., van der Merwe, N.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Topography of oxytocin and vasopressin neurons in the forebrain of Equus caballus: further support of proposed evolutionary relationships for proopiomelanocortin, oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. Melrose, P.A., Knigge, K.M. Brain Behav. Evol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Distribution of enzymes of purine metabolism in lymphocytes of horse, Equus caballus. Magnuson, N.S., Perryman, L.E., Mason, P.H., Marta, K.M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Demonstration of three DRB loci in a domestic horse family. Fraser, D.G., Bailey, E. Immunogenetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Complications with the use of carfentanil citrate and xylazine hydrochloride to immobilize domestic horses. Shaw, M.L., Carpenter, J.W., Leith, D.E. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Rapid reversible immobilization of feral stallions using etorphine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate. Plotka, E.D., Seal, U.S., Eagle, T.C., Asa, C.S., Tester, J.R., Siniff, D.B. J. Wildl. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Ovarian function in captive feral mares. Plotka, E.D., Vevea, D.N., Eagle, T.C., Siniff, D.B., Tester, J.R. J. Wildl. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain genes. Schrenzel, M.D., Watson, J.L., Ferrick, D.A. Immunogenetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Blood protein polymorphisms in the donkey (Equus asinus). Bell, K. Anim. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning of horse Hsp90 cDNA and its comparative analysis with other vertebrate Hsp90 sequences. Pepin, K., Momose, F., Ishida, N., Nagata, K. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparative studies of alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme: the proteins of kangaroo (Megaleia rufa and Macropus giganteus) and horse (Equus caballus). Bell, K., McKenzie, H.A., Muller, V., Shaw, D.C. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of the beta2-microglobulin gene of the horse. Tallmadge, R.L., Lear, T.L., Johnson, A.K., Guérin, G., Millon, L.V., Carpenter, S.L., Antczak, D.F. Immunogenetics (2003) [Pubmed]
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