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Chemical Compound Review

Plegicil     1-[10-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) phenothiazin...

Synonyms: Acetacin, Acetazin, Notensil, Plivafen, Anergan, ...
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Disease relevance of Acetopromazine

  • Consequently, since phenothiazines generally possess high bioavailability and low toxicity, we used several NMR techniques to explore the binding characteristics of acetopromazine with a total of five different RNA constructs: four as potential drug targets plus one control RNA construct [1].
  • Piglets (1-3 d old) anesthetized with ketamine and acepromazine received either 3 mL of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control) or autologous nonheparinized blood (hematoma) injected onto the cortical surface [2].
  • PROCEDURE: SAECG were recorded from each dog twice: prior to sedation and immediately after sedation with acepromazine (0.01 mg/kg of body weight, IV) and buprenorphine (0.007 mg/kg, IV) [3].
  • Recovery to an ambulatory state was seen in less than or equal to 30 minutes, except in 1 dog, in which prolonged recovery was attributed to acetylpromazine-induced hypotension [4].
  • Synergistic induction of severe hypothermia (poikilothermia) by limbic seizures, acepromazine and physical restraint: role of noradrenergic alpha-1 receptors [5].

Psychiatry related information on Acetopromazine

  • Tranquilizing action of acepromazine was potentiated but there was decrease in amphetamine influenced locomotor activity at both the dose levels [6].
  • These findings suggest that the multifocal neuronal necrosis subsequent to single peripheral injections of lithium and pilocarpine, followed by the neuroleptic, acepromazine, may significantly augment pain thresholds in certain rats within experimentally epileptic populations [7].

High impact information on Acetopromazine

  • We investigated the hemodynamic responses to three doses of atrial natriuretic factor [human atrial natriuretic factor-(99-126)] (ANF) in nephrectomized rabbits anesthetized with ketamine and acepromazine [8].
  • Analysis of differential saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR effects of acetopromazine suggests that the phenothiazine moiety has the closest contact to the binding sites of TAR and A-site RNA while the flexible N,N-dimethylpropylamino side chain contributes less to binding [1].
  • NMR data unambiguously show that acetylpromazine binds only to the unique 5' bulge site to which the Tat protein binds [9].
  • OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of cat washing, Allerpet-C spray, and acepromazine with that of no treatment on the shedding of the primary cat allergen, Felis domesticus I by cats [10].
  • In anesthetized mice, mean IOP +/- SD as determined by rebound tonometry was 9.8 +/- 3.9 mm Hg when the animals were anesthetized with ketamine alone and 7.6 +/- 1.9 mm Hg when a mixture of ketamine, acepromazine, and xylazine was used [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Acetopromazine


Biological context of Acetopromazine


Anatomical context of Acetopromazine


Associations of Acetopromazine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Acetopromazine

  • Acepromazine has no effect on striated muscle [26].
  • Similarly, acepromazine was effective in eliminating some of the Fos-labeled nuclei [30].
  • After a single-step liquid alkaline extraction, acepromazine was identified in a chest-cavity blood sample using gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus (NPD) and mass selective detectors [31].
  • PROCEDURE: Concentration of AVP, indirect MAP, Osm, PCV, and concentration of TS were measured at 5 time points (before administration of acetylpromazine or morphine, after administration of those drugs, after induction of anesthesia, 1 hour after the start of surgery, and 2 hours after the start of surgery) [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acetopromazine


  1. NMR-based characterization of phenothiazines as a RNA binding scaffold. Mayer, M., James, T.L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced vasoconstriction after cerebral hematoma in piglets. Yakubu, M.A., Leffler, C.W. Pediatr. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of acepromazine and buprenorphine on measured indices of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram in healthy dogs. Kushner, L.I., Calvert, C.A., Boyle, C.R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Percutaneous transabdominal hepatic needle biopsies in dogs. Hitt, M.E., Hanna, P., Singh, A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Synergistic induction of severe hypothermia (poikilothermia) by limbic seizures, acepromazine and physical restraint: role of noradrenergic alpha-1 receptors. Persinger, M.A., O'Connor, R.P., Bureau, Y.R., Parker, G.H., Peredery, O., Zegil, M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Pharmacodynamic interactions of cypermethrin and centrally acting drugs in mice. Varshneya, C., Kanwar, R.S. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Elevated nociceptive thresholds in rats with multifocal brain damage induced with single subcutaneous injections of lithium and pilocarpine. Galic, M.A. Perceptual and motor skills. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Hemodynamic responses to atrial natriuretic factor in nephrectomized rabbits: attenuation of the circulatory consequences of acute volume expansion. Volpe, M., Vecchione, F., Cuocolo, A., Lembo, G., Pignalosa, S., Condorelli, M., Trimarco, B. Circ. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure of TAR RNA complexed with a Tat-TAR interaction nanomolar inhibitor that was identified by computational screening. Du, Z., Lind, K.E., James, T.L. Chem. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cat shedding of Fel d I is not reduced by washings, Allerpet-C spray, or acepromazine. Klucka, C.V., Ownby, D.R., Green, J., Zoratti, E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Method for the noninvasive measurement of intraocular pressure in mice. Danias, J., Kontiola, A.I., Filippopoulos, T., Mittag, T. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Persistent penile prolapse associated with acute blood loss and acepromazine maleate administration in a horse. Nie, G.J., Pope, K.C. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Platelet aggregation in dogs after sedation with acepromazine and atropine and during subsequent general anesthesia and surgery. Barr, S.C., Ludders, J.W., Looney, A.L., Gleed, R.D., Erb, H.N. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Meperidine-acepromazine-pentobarbital anesthesia in cats: reversal by 4-aminopyridine and yohimbine. Hatch, R.C., Zahner, J.M., Booth, N.H. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Median effective dosage of propofol for induction of anesthesia in dogs. Watney, G.C., Pablo, L.S. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Adverse effects of administration of propofol with various preanesthetic regimens in dogs. Smith, J.A., Gaynor, J.S., Bednarski, R.M., Muir, W.W. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Cerebral blood volume measurements by rapid contrast infusion and T2*-weighted echo planar MRI. Tudorica, A., Fang Li, H., Hospod, F., Delucia-Deranja, E., Huang, W., Patlak, C.S., Newman, G.C. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Acepromazine. Effects on intraocular pressure. Hayreh, S.S., Kardon, R.H., McAllister, D.L., Fleury, P.J. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Modification of the cardiotoxic effects of ouabain by acepromazine, tetrodotoxin and magnesium sulphate. Peres-Gomes, F., Ribeiro, J.A. Pharmacology (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of acepromazine on renal function in anesthetized dogs. Boström, I., Nyman, G., Kampa, N., Häggström, J., Lord, P. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acepromazine in horses. Marroum, P.J., Webb, A.I., Aeschbacher, G., Curry, S.H. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Changing pattern of c-FOS expression in spinal cord neurons after electrical stimulation of the chronically injured sciatic nerve in the rat. Molander, C., Hongpaisan, J., Grant, G. Neuroscience (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of vecuronium on intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in cats. Giffin, J.P., Hartung, J., Cottrell, J.E., Capuano, C., Shwiry, B. British journal of anaesthesia. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. A previously unidentified acepromazine metabolite in humans: implications for the measurement of acepromazine in blood. Elliott, S.P., Hale, K.A. Journal of analytical toxicology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of acepromazine and butorphanol on positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal tract examination in dogs. Scrivani, P.V., Bednarski, R.M., Myer, C.W. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of acepromazine maleate and phenoxybenzamine on urethral pressure profiles of anesthetized, healthy, sexually intact male cats. Marks, S.L., Straeter-Knowlen, I.M., Moore, M., Speth, R., Rishniw, M., Knowlen, G.G. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of azaperone and acetylpromazine on social and environmental behaviour in sheep. Madsen, B.W., Syme, G.J., Syme, L.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Experimentally induced disorders of neuronal migration produce an increased propensity for electrographic seizures in rats. Roper, S.N., Gilmore, R.L., Houser, C.R. Epilepsy Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Intraoperative determination of intestinal viability: a comparison with transserosal pulse oximetry and histopathological examination. Erikoglu, M., Kaynak, A., Beyatli, E.A., Toy, H. J. Surg. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. The suppression of formalin-induced fos expression by different anesthetic agents in the infant rat. Yi, D.K., Barr, G.A. Developmental psychobiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Suicide with the veterinary drug acepromazine. Stowell, L.I. Journal of analytical toxicology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of acetylpromazine or morphine on urine production in halothane-anesthetized dogs. Robertson, S.A., Hauptman, J.G., Nachreiner, R.F., Richter, M.A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Propofol as an intravenous anaesthetic agent in dogs. Watkins, S.B., Hall, L.W., Clarke, K.W. Vet. Rec. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Development and use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to monitor serum and urine acepromazine concentrations in thoroghbreds, and possible changes associated with exercise. Chou, C.C., Chen, C.L., Asbury, A.C., Webb, A.I., Vickroy, T.W. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Analgesia and behavioral responses of dogs given oxymorphone-acepromazine and meperidine-acepromazine after methoxyflurane and halothane anesthesia. Sawyer, D.C., Rech, R.H., Adams, T., Durham, R.A., Richter, M.A., Striler, E.L. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Evaluation of the perioperative stress response in dogs administered medetomidine or acepromazine as part of the preanesthetic medication. Väisänen, M., Raekallio, M., Kuusela, E., Huttunen, P., Leppäluoto, J., Kirves, P., Vainio, O. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Combined use of sedatives and opiates in horses. Nolan, A.M., Hall, L.W. Vet. Rec. (1984) [Pubmed]
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