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MeSH Review

Electric Countershock

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Chemical compound and disease context of Electric Countershock


Biological context of Electric Countershock


Anatomical context of Electric Countershock

  • The present studies performed in experimental animals demonstrate that electrical direct current cardioversion can produce skeletal muscle damage and increased technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) uptake; in experimental animals the electrically damaged skeletal muscle shows necrosis with extensive calcium deposition [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with persistent AF, long-term administration of verapamil before internal cardioversion resulted in 1) shortening of atrial ERPs; 2) no change in refractoriness dispersion within the right atrium; and 3) no change in atrial ERP adaptation to rate [21].
  • Thus, short-term amiodarone with or without electrical cardioversion is effective and safe in the treatment of chronic rheumatic AF after mitral valve surgery [22].
  • RESULTS: With infusion of 0.005-0.008 microg/kg/min isoproterenol, heart rate increased by 11.1+/-2.9%, and left atrial appendage emptying velocity, which was diminished following cardioversion, increased significantly (P<0.001) (baseline, before and after isoproterenol: 41.1+/-18.0, 20.3+/-8.5 and 27.3+/-9.6 cm/s, respectively) [23].
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effectiveness of Ibutilide in cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation in patients with sinus node disease wearing a dual chamber pacemaker and to assess the potential role of overdrive ventricular pacing in prevention of drug related proarrhythmia [24].

Associations of Electric Countershock with chemical compounds


Gene context of Electric Countershock

  • Baseline cortisol levels, however, were significantly higher in the depressed group compared with the cardioversion group, P < 0.02, but not ACTH or AVP [27].
  • There was no significant difference in CRH responses between cardioversion and control days [27].
  • CONCLUSION: Significant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation and PRL release occur in response to both cardioversion and ECT [27].
  • Levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha after cardioversion were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.05) [28].
  • CONCLUSION: A strategy of approximately 24-hour delay in cardioversion shock timing decreased the incidence of ERAF, relative to a shock delivered within a few hours of AF onset [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Electric Countershock


  1. Facilitating transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation with ibutilide pretreatment. Oral, H., Souza, J.J., Michaud, G.F., Knight, B.P., Goyal, R., Strickberger, S.A., Morady, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Transplacental cardioversion of fetal supraventricular tachycardia with procainamide. Dumesic, D.A., Silverman, N.H., Tobias, S., Golbus, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Fetal echocardiography for evaluation of in utero congestive heart failure. Kleinman, C.S., Donnerstein, R.L., DeVore, G.R., Jaffe, C.C., Lynch, D.C., Berkowitz, R.L., Talner, N.S., Hobbins, J.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Direct current cardioversion. Effect on creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenase and myocardial isoenzymes. Reiffel, J.A., Gambino, S.R., McCarthy, D.M., Leahey, E.B. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Safety of electrical cardioversion in patients without digitalis toxicity. Ditchey, R.V., Karliner, J.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Propofol. An update of its use in anaesthesia and conscious sedation. Bryson, H.M., Fulton, B.R., Faulds, D. Drugs (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Electroencephalographic indices related to hypnosis and amnesia during propofol anaesthesia for cardioversion. Baker, G.W., Sleigh, J.W., Smith, P. Anaesthesia and intensive care. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Use of transesophageal echocardiography to guide cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation. Klein, A.L., Grimm, R.A., Murray, R.D., Apperson-Hansen, C., Asinger, R.W., Black, I.W., Davidoff, R., Erbel, R., Halperin, J.L., Orsinelli, D.A., Porter, T.R., Stoddard, M.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Low-dose amiodarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter. Gosselink, A.T., Crijns, H.J., Van Gelder, I.C., Hillige, H., Wiesfeld, A.C., Lie, K.I. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Cost-effectiveness of cardioversion and antiarrhythmic therapy in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Catherwood, E., Fitzpatrick, W.D., Greenberg, M.L., Holzberger, P.T., Malenka, D.J., Gerling, B.R., Birkmeyer, J.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Oral verapamil for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia: a long-term, double-blind randomized trial. Mauritson, D.R., Winniford, M.D., Walker, W.S., Rude, R.E., Cary, J.R., Hillis, L.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Intravenous sotalol decreases transthoracic cardioversion energy requirement for chronic atrial fibrillation in humans: assessment of the electrophysiological effects by biatrial basket electrodes. Lai, L.P., Lin, J.L., Lien, W.P., Tseng, Y.Z., Huang, S.K. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Ibutilide added to propafenone for the conversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Chiladakis, J.A., Kalogeropoulos, A., Patsouras, N., Manolis, A.S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy and proarrhythmic hazards of pharmacologic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: prospective comparison of sotalol versus quinidine. Hohnloser, S.H., van de Loo, A., Baedeker, F. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Enhancing electrical cardioversion and preventing immediate reinitiation of hemodynamically deleterious atrial fibrillation with class III drug pretreatment. Hayashi, M., Tanaka, K., Kato, T., Morita, N., Sato, N., Yasutake, M., Kobayashi, Y., Takano, T. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Positive atrial inotropic effect of dofetilide after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter. DeCara, J.M., Pollak, A., Dubrey, S., Falk, R.H. Am. J. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Sotalol reverses remodeled action potential in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation but does not prevent arrhythmia recurrence. Osaka, T., Yamazaki, M., Yokoyama, E., Ito, A., Kodama, I. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Pharmacologic control of rhythm: American College of Chest Physicians guidelines for the prevention and management of postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Martinez, E.A., Bass, E.B., Zimetbaum, P. Chest (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Atrial fibrillation impairs endothelial function of forearm vessels in humans. Takahashi, N., Ishibashi, Y., Shimada, T., Sakane, T., Ohata, S., Sugamori, T., Ohta, Y., Inoue , S., Nakamura, K., Shimizu, H., Katoh, H., Sano, K., Murakami, Y., Hashimoto, M. J. Card. Fail. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Cardioversion and "false positive" technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams. Pugh, B.R., Buja, L.M., Parkey, R.W., Poliner, L.R., Stokely, E.M., Bonte, F.J., Willerson, J.T. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Postcardioversion atrial electrophysiologic changes induced by oral verapamil in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Pandozi, C., Bianconi, L., Calò, L., Castro, A., Lamberti, F., Scianaro, M.C., Gentilucci, G., Santini, M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Effectiveness of amiodarone and electrical cardioversion for chronic rheumatic atrial fibrillation after mitral valve surgery. Skoularigis, J., Röthlisberger, C., Skudicky, D., Essop, M.R., Wisenbaugh, T., Sareli, P. Am. J. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of low-dose isoproterenol infusion on left atrial appendage function soon after cardioversion of chronic atrial tachyarrhythmias. Date, T., Takahashi, A., Iesaka, Y., Miyazaki, H., Yamane, T., Noma, K., Nuruiki, N., Ishikawa, S., Kanae, K., Mochizuki, S. International journal of cardiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Effectiveness of ibutilide in cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation in patients with dual chamber stimulation. Santini, M., Pignalberi, C., Ricci, R., Calò, L., Santini, L. Journal of interventional cardiac electrophysiology : an international journal of arrhythmias and pacing. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Cardioversion from atrial fibrillation without prolonged anticoagulation with use of transesophageal echocardiography to exclude the presence of atrial thrombi. Manning, W.J., Silverman, D.I., Gordon, S.P., Krumholz, H.M., Douglas, P.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Efficacy and safety of quinidine therapy for maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion. A meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Coplen, S.E., Antman, E.M., Berlin, J.A., Hewitt, P., Chalmers, T.C. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Plasma cortisol, PRL, ACTH, AVP and corticotrophin releasing hormone responses to direct current cardioversion and electroconvulsive therapy. Florkowski, C.M., Crozier, I.G., Nightingale, S., Evans, M.J., Ellis, M.J., Joyce, P., Donald, R.A. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. C-reactive protein and atrial fibrillation. Is inflammation a consequence or a cause of atrial fibrillation? Sata, N., Hamada, N., Horinouchi, T., Amitani, S., Yamashita, T., Moriyama, Y., Miyahara, K. Japanese heart journal. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Impact of atrial fibrillation duration on postcardioversion recurrence. Schwartzman, D., Musley, S., Koehler, J., Warman, E. Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Cardioversion guided by transesophageal echocardiography: the ACUTE Pilot Study. A randomized, controlled trial. Assessment of Cardioversion Using Transesophageal Echocardiography. Klein, A.L., Grimm, R.A., Black, I.W., Leung, D.Y., Chung, M.K., Vaughn, S.E., Murray, R.D., Miller, D.P., Arheart, K.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Flecainide-induced ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation in patients treated for atrial fibrillation. Falk, R.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Atrial fibrillation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a longitudinal study. Robinson, K., Frenneaux, M.P., Stockins, B., Karatasakis, G., Poloniecki, J.D., McKenna, W.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Aggravation of postcardioversion atrial dysfunction by sotalol. Pollak, A., Falk, R.H. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Transoesophageal echocardiography-guided cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter. Selection of a low-risk group for immediate cardioversion. Roijer, A., Eskilsson, J., Olsson, B. Eur. Heart J. (2000) [Pubmed]
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