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MeSH Review

Sinoatrial Node

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Disease relevance of Sinoatrial Node


Psychiatry related information on Sinoatrial Node

  • In conclusion, in patients with NSNF propafenone 1. does not affect sinus node automatism and 2. prolongs significantly DSACT, which, however, remains within the upper normal limit [6].

High impact information on Sinoatrial Node


Chemical compound and disease context of Sinoatrial Node


Biological context of Sinoatrial Node


Anatomical context of Sinoatrial Node


Associations of Sinoatrial Node with chemical compounds

  • Acute effects of amiodarone upon the canine sinus node and atrioventricular junctional region [11].
  • The electrophysiological effects of ouabain on sinus node and atrium in man [26].
  • Adverse cardiac reactions (proarrhythmia or sinus node suppression) attributable to flecainide occurred in 11 of 63 patients (17%); in 9 (82%) of these 11 patients, events were detected during either in-hospital monitoring or the electrophysiologic study done before discharge [27].
  • Twenty other patients with sinus node disease underwent electrophysiologic studies both before and after i.v. administration of 0.04 mg of atropine alone [28].
  • At a mean dose of 179 +/- 88 micrograms/kg (+/- SD), adenosine suppressed sinus node automaticity and depressed atrioventricular (AV) nodal conduction [29].

Gene context of Sinoatrial Node

  • The pacemaker channels HCN2 and HCN4 have been identified in cardiac sino-atrial node cells [30].
  • Throughout cardiac development, Tbx3 is expressed in an uninterrupted myocardial domain that extends from the sinoatrial node to the atrioventricular region [31].
  • Consistent with this is the recent description of KCNE2, which is highly expressed in the sinoatrial node, as a beta-subunit of rapidly activating HCN1 and HCN2 channels [32].
  • Sinus node recovery times after carbachol and sinus cycle lengths were shorter and ventricular effective refractory periods were greater in KO mice than in WT mice [33].
  • Functional alterations in the SAN following heterozygous-targeted disruption of Scn5a thus closely resemble those observed in clinical sinus node dysfunction [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sinoatrial Node

  • To determine the contribution of disopyramide's suggested opposing direct depressant and indirect acceleratory actions on sinus node function, we studied the effects of disopyramide, 1 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-4) M, on isolated rabbit sinus node preparations using standard microelectrode techniques [35].
  • ECG responses to isoproterenol are also similar in the 2 groups. beta-Galactosidase staining in postnatal minK (-/-) hearts is highly restricted, to the sinus-node region, caudal atrial septum, and proximal conducting system [36].
  • The direct and indirect chronotropic effects of clonidine (0.001--10 micrograms/ml) were studied by selective perfusion of the sinus node artery of 20 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs [37].
  • 1. The effect of the bradycardic agent S 16257 on the main ionic mechanisms of diastolic depolarization in sinoatrial node cells isolated from rabbit heart, was investigated by the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell and macro-patch recordings [38].
  • Administration of PGI2 either to the donor dog or directly into the sinus node arterial cannula did not alter the atrial rate or developed tension in the isolated blood perfused atrial preparation [39].


  1. Proarrhythmia in patients treated for atrial fibrillation or flutter. Falk, R.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Adenosine causes bradycardia in pacing-induced cardiac failure. Belloni, F.L., Wang, J., Hintze, T.H. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanism-specific effects of adenosine on atrial tachycardia. Engelstein, E.D., Lippman, N., Stein, K.M., Lerman, B.B. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Reduced cholinergic sinus node restraint in hyperthyroidism. White, C.W., Zimmerman, T.J. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Functional characterization of a trafficking-defective HCN4 mutation, D553N, associated with cardiac arrhythmia. Ueda, K., Nakamura, K., Hayashi, T., Inagaki, N., Takahashi, M., Arimura, T., Morita, H., Higashiuesato, Y., Hirano, Y., Yasunami, M., Takishita, S., Yamashina, A., Ohe, T., Sunamori, M., Hiraoka, M., Kimura, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of propafenone on directly measured sinoatrial conduction time. Monizzi, D., Padeletti, L., Michelucci, A., Giovannini, T., Romano, S., Montanari, P., Pozzoni, L. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Cimetidine and sinus-node function. Levi, R., Trzeciakowski, J.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Reversible sinus-node abnormalities due to lithium carbonate therapy. Wilson, J.R., Kraus, E.S., Bailas, M.M., Rakita, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Sinus node dysfunction caused by methyldopa and digoxin. Davis, J.C., Reiffel, J.A., Bigger, J.T. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Electrophysiological abnormalities and arrhythmias in alpha MHC mutant familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mice. Berul, C.I., Christe, M.E., Aronovitz, M.J., Seidman, C.E., Seidman, J.G., Mendelsohn, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Acute effects of amiodarone upon the canine sinus node and atrioventricular junctional region. Gloor, H.O., Urthaler, F., James, T.N. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Central vagotonic effects of atropine modulate spectral oscillations of sympathetic nerve activity. Montano, N., Cogliati, C., Porta, A., Pagani, M., Malliani, A., Narkiewicz, K., Abboud, F.M., Birkett, C., Somers, V.K. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Electrophysiologic effects of propranolol on sinus node function in patients with sinus node dysfunction. Strauss, H.C., Gilbert, M., Svenson, R.H., Miller, H.C., Wallace, A.G. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Digitalis and the sick sinus syndrome. Clinical and electrophysiologic documentation of severe toxic effect on sinus node function. Margolis, J.R., Strauss, H.C., Miller, H.C., Gilbert, M., Wallace, A.G. Circulation (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Verapamil in treatment of chronic stable angina. Frishman, W.H., Charlap, S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. The cardiovascular effects of lithium in man. A review of the literature. Tilkian, A.G., Schroeder, J.S., Kao, J.J., Hultgren, H.N. Am. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Normal myocardial contractile state in the presence of quinidine. Markiewicz, W., Winkle, R., Binetti, G., Kernoff, R., Harrison, D.C. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential expression of gap junction proteins in the canine sinus node. Kwong, K.F., Schuessler, R.B., Green, K.G., Laing, J.G., Beyer, E.C., Boineau, J.P., Saffitz, J.E. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Addition of zatebradine, a direct sinus node inhibitor, provides no greater exercise tolerance benefit in patients with angina taking extended-release nifedipine: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. The Zatebradine Study Group. Frishman, W.H., Pepine, C.J., Weiss, R.J., Baiker, W.M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Electrophysiological effects of alinidine (ST 567) on sinoatrial node fibres in the rabbit heart. Opthof, T., Duivenvoorden, J.J., Vanginneken, A.C., Jongsma, H.J., Bouman, L.N. Cardiovasc. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on the sino-atrial node of the guinea-pig. Choate, J.K., Edwards, F.R., Hirst, G.D., O'Shea, J.E. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Postmortem studies of the heart in three fatal cases of the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. James, T.N., Kamb, M.L., Sandberg, G.A., Silver, R.M., Kilbourne, E.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Development of the cardiac conduction tissue in human embryos using HNK-1 antigen expression: possible relevance for understanding of abnormal atrial automaticity. Blom, N.A., Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C., DeRuiter, M.C., Poelmann, R.E., Mentink, M.M., Ottenkamp, J. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Positive chronotropic actions of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide are associated with increases in the current, I(f), and the slope of the pacemaker potential. Hara, M., Liu, Y.M., Zhen, L., Cohen, I.S., Yu, H., Danilo, P., Ogino, K., Bilezikian, J.P., Rosen, M.R. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Autoradiographic characterization of beta-adrenergic receptor subtype in the canine conduction system. Muntz, K.H. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. The electrophysiological effects of ouabain on sinus node and atrium in man. Dhingra, R.C., Amat-Y-Leon, F., Wyndham, C., Wu, D., Denes, P., Rosen, K.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Safety and efficacy of oral flecainide therapy in patients with atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia. Cockrell, J.L., Scheinman, M.M., Titus, C., Helmy, I., Langberg, J.J., Lee, M.A., Griffin, J.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Electrophysiologic effects on combined autonomic blockade in patients with sinus node disease. Desai, J.M., Scheinman, M.M., Strauss, H.C., Massie, B., O'Young, J. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Adenosine: electrophysiologic effects and therapeutic use for terminating paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. DiMarco, J.P., Sellers, T.D., Berne, R.M., West, G.A., Belardinelli, L. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular basis for the different activation kinetics of the pacemaker channels HCN2 and HCN4. Stieber, J., Thomer, A., Much, B., Schneider, A., Biel, M., Hofmann, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. The transcriptional repressor Tbx3 delineates the developing central conduction system of the heart. Hoogaars, W.M., Tessari, A., Moorman, A.F., de Boer, P.A., Hagoort, J., Soufan, A.T., Campione, M., Christoffels, V.M. Cardiovasc. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. KCNE2 modulates current amplitudes and activation kinetics of HCN4: influence of KCNE family members on HCN4 currents. Decher, N., Bundis, F., Vajna, R., Steinmeyer, K. Pflugers Arch. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Evaluation of the role of I(KACh) in atrial fibrillation using a mouse knockout model. Kovoor, P., Wickman, K., Maguire, C.T., Pu, W., Gehrmann, J., Berul, C.I., Clapham, D.E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Sinus node dysfunction following targeted disruption of the murine cardiac sodium channel gene Scn5a. Lei, M., Goddard, C., Liu, J., Léoni, A.L., Royer, A., Fung, S.S., Xiao, G., Ma, A., Zhang, H., Charpentier, F., Vandenberg, J.I., Colledge, W.H., Grace, A.A., Huang, C.L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. The cellular electrophysiologic mechanism of the dual actions of disopyramide on rabbit sinus node function. Katoh, T., Karagueuzian, H.S., Jordan, J., Mandel, W.J. Circulation (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. Replacement by homologous recombination of the minK gene with lacZ reveals restriction of minK expression to the mouse cardiac conduction system. Kupershmidt, S., Yang, T., Anderson, M.E., Wessels, A., Niswender, K.D., Magnuson, M.A., Roden, D.M. Circ. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Selective effects of clonidine on the canine sinus node. Primm, R.K., Urthaler, F., James, T.N. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  38. Mode of action of bradycardic agent, S 16257, on ionic currents of rabbit sinoatrial node cells. Bois, P., Bescond, J., Renaudon, B., Lenfant, J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Mechanism of the chronotropic effects of prostacyclin in the dog: comparison with the actions of prostaglandin E2. Chiba, S., Malik, K.U. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
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